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मर्दानी किरणदेवी और महाविलासी अकबर की दास्तां


मर्दानी किरणदेवी और महाविलासी अकबर की दास्तां

अकबर प्रतिवर्ष नौरोज के मेले का आयोजन करता था, जिसमें वह सुंदर युवतियों को खोजता था, और उनसे अपने शरीर की भूख शांत करता है।
एक बार अकबर नौरोज के मेले में बुरका पहनकर सुंदर स्त्रियों की खोज कर ही रहा था, कि उसकी नजर मेले में घूम रही किरणदेवी पर जा पड़ी। वह किरणदेवी के रमणीय रूप पर मोहित हो गया। किरणदेवी मेवाड़ के महाराणा प्रतापसिंह के छोटे भाई शक्तिसिंह की पुत्री थी और उसका विवाह बीकानेर के प्रसिद्ध राजपूत वंश में उत्पन्न पृथ्वीराज राठौर के साथ हुआ था। अकबर ने बाद में किरणदेवी का पता लगा लिया कि यह तो तुम्हारे ही गुलाम की बीबी है, तो उसने पृथ्वीराज राठौर को जंग पर भेज दिया और किरण देवी को अपनी दूतियों के द्वारा बहाने से महल में आने का निमंत्रण दिया। अब किरणदेवी पहुंची अकबर के महल में, तो स्वागत तो होना ही था और इन शब्दो में हुआ, ‘‘हम तुम्हें अपनी बेगम बनाना चाहते हैं।’’ कहता हुआ अकबर आगे बढ़ा, तो किरणदेवी पीछे को हटी…अकबर आगे बढ़ते गया और किरणदेवी उल्टे पांव पीछे हटती गयी…लेकिन कब तक हटती बेचारी पीछे को…उसकी कमर दीवार से जा ली।
‘‘बचकर कहाँ जाओगी,’’ अकबर मुस्कुराया, ‘‘ऐसा मौका फिर कब मिलेगा, तुम्हारी जगह पृथ्वीराज के झोंपड़ा में नहीं हमारा ही महल में है’’
‘‘हे भगवान, ’’ किरणदेवी ने मन-ही-मन में सोचा, ‘‘इस राक्षस से अपनी इज्जत आबरू कैसे बचाउ?’’
‘‘हे धरती माता, किसी म्लेच्छ के हाथों अपवित्र होने से पहले मुझे सीता की तरह अपनी गोद में ले लो।’’ व्यथा से कहते हुए उसकी आँखों से अश्रूधारा बहने लगी और निसहाय बनी धरती की ओर देखने लगी, तभी उसकी नजर कालीन पर पड़ी। उसने कालीन का किनारा पकड़कर उसे जोरदार झटका दिया। उसके ऐसा करते ही अकबर जो कालीन पर चल रहा था, पैर उलझने पर वह पीछे को सरपट गिर पड़ गया, ‘‘या अल्लाह!’’
उसके इतना कहते ही किरणदेवी को संभलने का मौका मिल गया और वह उछलकर अकबर की छाती पर जा बैठी और अपनी आंगी से कटार निकालकर उसे अकबर की गर्दन पर रखकर बोली, ‘‘अब बोलो शहंशाह, तुम्हारी आखिरी इच्छा क्या है? किसी स्त्री से अपनी हवश मिटाने की या कुछ ओर?’’
एकांत महल में गर्दन से सटी कटार को और क्रोध में दहाडती किरणदेवी को देखकर अकबर भयभीत हो गया।
एक कवि ने उस स्थिति का चित्र इन शब्दों में खींचा है:
सिंहनी-सी झपट, दपट चढ़ी छाती पर,
मानो शठ दानव पर दुर्गा तेजधारी है।
गर्जकर बोली दुष्ट! मीना के बाजार में मिस,
छीना अबलाओं का सतीत्व दुराचारी है।
अकबर! आज राजपूतानी से पाला पड़ा,
पाजी चालबाजी सब भूलती तिहारी है।
करले खुदा को याद भेजती यमालय को,
देख! यह प्यासी तेरे खून की कटारी है।
‘‘मुझे माफ कर दो दुर्गा माता,’’ मुगल सम्राट अकबर गिड़गिड़ाया, ‘‘तुम निश्चय ही दुर्गा हो, कोई साधारण नारी नहीं, मैं तुमसे प्राणों की भीख माँगता हूँ। यही मैं मर गया तो यह देश अनाथ हो जाएगा।’’
‘‘ओह!’’ किरणदेवी बोली, ‘‘देश अनाथ हो जाएगा, जब इस देश में म्लेच्छ आक्रांता नहीं आए थे, तब क्या इसके सिर पर किसी के आशीष का हाथ नहीं था?’’
‘‘नहीं, ऐसी बात नहीं है,’’ अकबर फिर गिड़गिड़ाया, ‘‘पर आज देश की ऐसी स्थिति है कि मुझे कुछ हो गया तो यह बर्बाद हो जाएगा।’’
‘‘अरे मूर्ख देश को बर्बाद तो तुम कर रहे हो, तुम्हारे जाने से तो यह आबाद हो जाएगा। महाराणा जैसे बहुत हैं, अभी यहाँ स्वतंत्रता के उपासक।’’
‘‘हाँ हैं,’’ वह फिर बोला, ‘‘लेकिन आर्य कभी किसी का नमक खाकर नमक हरामी नहीं करते।’’
‘‘नमक हमारी,’’ किरणदेवी बोली, ‘‘तुम कहना क्या चाहते हो?’’
‘‘तुम्हारे पति ने रामायण पर हाथ रखकर मरते समय तक वफादारी का कसम खायी थी और तुमने भी प्रीतिभोज में मेरे यहाँ भोजन किया था, फिर यदि तुम मेरी हत्या कर दोगी तो क्या यह विश्वासघात या नमकहरामी नहीं होगी।’’
‘‘विश्वासघाती से विश्वासघात करना कोई अधर्म नहीं राजन,’’ किरणदेवी फिर गरजी, ‘‘तुम कौनसे दूध के धुले हो?’’
‘‘हाँ मैं दूध का धुला हुआ नहीं, पर मुझे क्षमा कर दो, हिन्दुओं के धर्म के दस लक्षणों मेें क्षमा भी एक है, इसलिए तुम्हें तुम्हारे धर्म की कसम, मुझे अपनी गौ समझकर क्षमा कर दो।’’
‘‘पापी अपनी तुलना हमारी पवित्र गौ से मत करो,’’ फिर वह थोड़ी सी नरम पड़ गयी, ‘‘यदि तुम आज अपनी मौत और मेरी कटारी के बीच में धर्म और गाय को नहीं लाते तो मैं सचमुच तुम्हें मारकर धरती का भार हल्का कर देती।’’ फिर चेतावनी देते हुए बोली, ‘‘आज भले ही सारा भारत तुम्हारे पांवों पर शीश झुकाता हो? किंतु मेवाड़ का सिसोदिया वंश आज भी अपना सिर उचा किए खड़ा है। मैं उसी राजवंश की कन्या हूँ। मेरी धमनियों में बप्पा रावल और राणा सांगा का रक्त बह रहा है। हम राजपूत रमणियाँ अपने प्राणों से अधिक अपनी मर्यादा को मानती हैं और उसके लिए मर भी सकती हैं और मार भी सकती हैं। यदि तु आज बचना चाहता है तो अपनी माँ और कुरान की सच्ची कसम खाकर प्रतिज्ञा कर कि आगे से नौरोज मेला नहीं लगाएगा और किसी महिला की इज्जत नहीं लूटेगा। यदि तुझे यह स्वीकार नहीं है, तो मैं अभी तेरे प्राण ले लूंगी, भले ही तूने हिन्दू धर्म और गौ की दुहाई दी हो। मुझे अपनी मृत्यु का भय नहीं है।’’
अकबर को वास्तव में अनुभव हुआ कि तू मृत्यु के पाश में जकड़ा जा चुका है। जीवन और मौत का फासला मिट गया था। उसने माँ की कसम खाकर किरणदेवी की बात को माँ लिया, ‘‘मुझे मेरी माँ की सौगंध, मैं आज से संसार की सब स्त्राी जाति को अपनी बेटी समझूँगा और किसी भी स्त्राी के सामने आते ही मेरा सिर झुका जाएगा, भले ही कोई नवजात कन्या भी हो और कुरान-ए-पाक की कसम खाकर कहता हूँ कि आज ही नौरोज मेला बंद कराने का फरमान जारी कर दूँगा।’’
वीर पतिव्रता किरणदेवी ने दया करके अकबर को छोड़ दिया और तुरन्त अपने महल में लौट आयी। इस प्रकार एक पतिव्रता और साहसी महिला ने प्राणों की बाजी लगाकर न केवल अपनी इज्जत की रक्षा की, अपित भविष्य में नारियों को उसकी वासना का शिकार बनने से भी बचा लिया।
और उसके बाद वास्तव में नौरोज मेला बंद हो गया। अकबर जैसे सम्राट को भी मेला बंद कर देने के लिए विवश कर देने वाली इस वीरांगना का साहस प्रशंसनीय है।

मर्दानी किरणदेवी और महाविलासी अकबर की दास्तां

अकबर प्रतिवर्ष नौरोज के मेले का आयोजन करता था, जिसमें वह सुंदर युवतियों को खोजता था, और उनसे अपने शरीर की भूख शांत करता है। 
एक बार अकबर नौरोज के मेले में बुरका पहनकर सुंदर स्त्रियों की खोज कर ही रहा था, कि उसकी नजर मेले में घूम रही किरणदेवी पर जा पड़ी। वह किरणदेवी के रमणीय रूप पर मोहित हो गया। किरणदेवी मेवाड़ के महाराणा प्रतापसिंह के छोटे भाई शक्तिसिंह की पुत्री थी और उसका विवाह बीकानेर के प्रसिद्ध राजपूत वंश में उत्पन्न पृथ्वीराज राठौर के साथ हुआ था। अकबर ने बाद में किरणदेवी का पता लगा लिया कि यह तो तुम्हारे ही गुलाम की बीबी है, तो उसने पृथ्वीराज राठौर को जंग पर भेज दिया और किरण देवी को अपनी दूतियों के द्वारा बहाने से महल में आने का निमंत्रण दिया। अब किरणदेवी पहुंची अकबर के महल में, तो स्वागत तो होना ही था और इन शब्दो में हुआ, ‘‘हम तुम्हें अपनी बेगम बनाना चाहते हैं।’’ कहता हुआ अकबर आगे बढ़ा, तो किरणदेवी पीछे को हटी...अकबर आगे बढ़ते गया और किरणदेवी उल्टे पांव पीछे हटती गयी...लेकिन कब तक हटती बेचारी पीछे को...उसकी कमर दीवार से जा ली।
‘‘बचकर कहाँ जाओगी,’’ अकबर मुस्कुराया, ‘‘ऐसा मौका फिर कब मिलेगा, तुम्हारी जगह पृथ्वीराज के झोंपड़ा में नहीं हमारा ही महल में है’’
‘‘हे भगवान, ’’ किरणदेवी ने मन-ही-मन में सोचा, ‘‘इस राक्षस से अपनी इज्जत आबरू कैसे बचाउ?’’
‘‘हे धरती माता, किसी म्लेच्छ के हाथों अपवित्र होने से पहले मुझे सीता की तरह अपनी गोद में ले लो।’’ व्यथा से कहते हुए उसकी आँखों से अश्रूधारा बहने लगी और निसहाय बनी धरती की ओर देखने लगी, तभी उसकी नजर कालीन पर पड़ी। उसने कालीन का किनारा पकड़कर उसे जोरदार झटका दिया। उसके ऐसा करते ही अकबर जो कालीन पर चल रहा था, पैर उलझने पर वह पीछे को सरपट गिर पड़ गया, ‘‘या अल्लाह!’’
उसके इतना कहते ही किरणदेवी को संभलने का मौका मिल गया और वह उछलकर अकबर की छाती पर जा बैठी और अपनी आंगी से कटार निकालकर उसे अकबर की गर्दन पर रखकर बोली, ‘‘अब बोलो शहंशाह, तुम्हारी आखिरी इच्छा क्या है? किसी स्त्री से अपनी हवश मिटाने की या कुछ ओर?’’
एकांत महल में गर्दन से सटी कटार को और क्रोध में दहाडती किरणदेवी को देखकर अकबर भयभीत हो गया।
एक कवि ने उस स्थिति का चित्र इन शब्दों में खींचा है:
सिंहनी-सी झपट, दपट चढ़ी छाती पर,
मानो शठ दानव पर दुर्गा तेजधारी है।
गर्जकर बोली दुष्ट! मीना के बाजार में मिस,
छीना अबलाओं का सतीत्व दुराचारी है।
अकबर! आज राजपूतानी से पाला पड़ा,
पाजी चालबाजी सब भूलती तिहारी है।
करले खुदा को याद भेजती यमालय को,
देख! यह प्यासी तेरे खून की कटारी है।
‘‘मुझे माफ कर दो दुर्गा माता,’’ मुगल सम्राट अकबर गिड़गिड़ाया, ‘‘तुम निश्चय ही दुर्गा हो, कोई साधारण नारी नहीं, मैं तुमसे प्राणों की भीख माँगता हूँ। यही मैं मर गया तो यह देश अनाथ हो जाएगा।’’
‘‘ओह!’’ किरणदेवी बोली, ‘‘देश अनाथ हो जाएगा, जब इस देश में म्लेच्छ आक्रांता नहीं आए थे, तब क्या इसके सिर पर किसी के आशीष का हाथ नहीं था?’’
‘‘नहीं, ऐसी बात नहीं है,’’ अकबर फिर गिड़गिड़ाया, ‘‘पर आज देश की ऐसी स्थिति है कि मुझे कुछ हो गया तो यह बर्बाद हो जाएगा।’’
‘‘अरे मूर्ख देश को बर्बाद तो तुम कर रहे हो, तुम्हारे जाने से तो यह आबाद हो जाएगा। महाराणा जैसे बहुत हैं, अभी यहाँ स्वतंत्रता के उपासक।’’
‘‘हाँ हैं,’’ वह फिर बोला, ‘‘लेकिन आर्य कभी किसी का नमक खाकर नमक हरामी नहीं करते।’’
‘‘नमक हमारी,’’ किरणदेवी बोली, ‘‘तुम कहना क्या चाहते हो?’’
‘‘तुम्हारे पति ने रामायण पर हाथ रखकर मरते समय तक वफादारी का कसम खायी थी और तुमने भी प्रीतिभोज में मेरे यहाँ भोजन किया था, फिर यदि तुम मेरी हत्या कर दोगी तो क्या यह विश्वासघात या नमकहरामी नहीं होगी।’’
‘‘विश्वासघाती से विश्वासघात करना कोई अधर्म नहीं राजन,’’ किरणदेवी फिर गरजी, ‘‘तुम कौनसे दूध के धुले हो?’’
‘‘हाँ मैं दूध का धुला हुआ नहीं, पर मुझे क्षमा कर दो, हिन्दुओं के धर्म के दस लक्षणों मेें क्षमा भी एक है, इसलिए तुम्हें तुम्हारे धर्म की कसम, मुझे अपनी गौ समझकर क्षमा कर दो।’’
‘‘पापी अपनी तुलना हमारी पवित्र गौ से मत करो,’’ फिर वह थोड़ी सी नरम पड़ गयी, ‘‘यदि तुम आज अपनी मौत और मेरी कटारी के बीच में धर्म और गाय को नहीं लाते तो मैं सचमुच तुम्हें मारकर धरती का भार हल्का कर देती।’’ फिर चेतावनी देते हुए बोली, ‘‘आज भले ही सारा भारत तुम्हारे पांवों पर शीश झुकाता हो? किंतु मेवाड़ का सिसोदिया वंश आज भी अपना सिर उचा किए खड़ा है। मैं उसी राजवंश की कन्या हूँ। मेरी धमनियों में बप्पा रावल और राणा सांगा का रक्त बह रहा है। हम राजपूत रमणियाँ अपने प्राणों से अधिक अपनी मर्यादा को मानती हैं और उसके लिए मर भी सकती हैं और मार भी सकती हैं। यदि तु आज बचना चाहता है तो अपनी माँ और कुरान की सच्ची कसम खाकर प्रतिज्ञा कर कि आगे से नौरोज मेला नहीं लगाएगा और किसी महिला की इज्जत नहीं लूटेगा। यदि तुझे यह स्वीकार नहीं है, तो मैं अभी तेरे प्राण ले लूंगी, भले ही तूने हिन्दू धर्म और गौ की दुहाई दी हो। मुझे अपनी मृत्यु का भय नहीं है।’’
अकबर को वास्तव में अनुभव हुआ कि तू मृत्यु के पाश में जकड़ा जा चुका है। जीवन और मौत का फासला मिट गया था। उसने माँ की कसम खाकर किरणदेवी की बात को माँ लिया, ‘‘मुझे मेरी माँ की सौगंध, मैं आज से संसार की सब स्त्राी जाति को अपनी बेटी समझूँगा और किसी भी स्त्राी के सामने आते ही मेरा सिर झुका जाएगा, भले ही कोई नवजात कन्या भी हो और कुरान-ए-पाक की कसम खाकर कहता हूँ कि आज ही नौरोज मेला बंद कराने का फरमान जारी कर दूँगा।’’
वीर पतिव्रता किरणदेवी ने दया करके अकबर को छोड़ दिया और तुरन्त अपने महल में लौट आयी। इस प्रकार एक पतिव्रता और साहसी महिला ने प्राणों की बाजी लगाकर न केवल अपनी इज्जत की रक्षा की, अपित भविष्य में नारियों को उसकी वासना का शिकार बनने से भी बचा लिया।
और उसके बाद वास्तव में नौरोज मेला बंद हो गया। अकबर जैसे सम्राट को भी मेला बंद कर देने के लिए विवश कर देने वाली इस वीरांगना का साहस प्रशंसनीय है।
Posted in गणेश देवा, भारतीय मंदिर - Bharatiya Mandir

Ganesha (गणेश)


Ganesha (गणेश): The elephant god, son of Shankar (भगवान शंकर) and Parvati (देवी पार्वती). He is the God of wisdom and good judgement. He is worshipped as the remover of obstacles (विघ्नहर्ता) that stand in the way of good deeds. He is also known to plants obstacles in the path of evil activities (दुष्टदलन). Though neither human nor animal, Ganesha combines human intelligence with the physical strength of an Elephant. He is considered to be the supreme embodiment of knowledge and divine wisdom (बुद्धी रिद्धि सिद्धि प्रदायक). He is said to have written the Mahabharata from the dictation of sage Vyasa. He is a charming though odd looking deity. He is represented as short, fat and with a protruding belly. His skin has an orangish hue and his appearance reflects prosperity. He has four hands, the head of an elephant (गजानन) and only one tusk (एकदंत). In one hand he holds a shell, in another a discus, a club in the third and a water lily in the fourth. He is shown as riding on a rat. He is said to possess a third eye like his parents. But unlike them, it is not there to display anger. On the contrary, it is a symbol of his wisdom. He is also a dancer, and his dancing is joyous and not destructive.
‪#‎Ganesha‬ ‪#‎Ekadanta‬ ‪#‎Gajanana‬ ‪#‎Lambodara‬ ‪#‎Vighnahartata‬

Kamal Nandlal – http://KamalNandlal.com – +919310203939

Ganesha (गणेश): The elephant god, son of Shankar (भगवान शंकर) and Parvati (देवी पार्वती). He is the God of wisdom and good judgement. He is worshipped as the remover of obstacles (विघ्नहर्ता) that stand in the way of good deeds. He is also known to plants obstacles in the path of evil activities (दुष्टदलन). Though neither human nor animal, Ganesha combines human intelligence with the physical strength of an Elephant. He is considered to be the supreme embodiment of knowledge and divine wisdom (बुद्धी रिद्धि सिद्धि प्रदायक). He is said to have written the Mahabharata from the dictation of sage Vyasa. He is a charming though odd looking deity. He is represented as short, fat and with a protruding belly. His skin has an orangish hue and his appearance reflects prosperity. He has four hands, the head of an elephant (गजानन) and only one tusk (एकदंत). In one hand he holds a shell, in another a discus, a club in the third and a water lily in the fourth. He is shown as riding on a rat. He is said to possess a third eye like his parents. But unlike them, it is not there to display anger. On the contrary, it is a symbol of his wisdom. He is also a dancer, and his dancing is joyous and not destructive. 
#Ganesha #Ekadanta #Gajanana #Lambodara #Vighnahartata
--
Kamal Nandlal - http://KamalNandlal.com - +919310203939
Posted in सुभाषित - Subhasit

विजेतव्या लंका चरणतरणीयो जलनिधि विपक्ष: पौलस्त्यो रणभुवि सहायाश्च कपय: l तथाप्येको राम:सकलमवधीद्राक्षसकुमं l क्रियासिद्धि: सत्वे भव्ति महतां नोपकरणे ll


विजेतव्या लंका चरणतरणीयो जलनिधि विपक्ष: पौलस्त्यो रणभुवि सहायाश्च कपय: l
तथाप्येको राम:सकलमवधीद्राक्षसकुमं l क्रियासिद्धि: सत्वे भव्ति महतां नोपकरणे ll
For defeating Lanka, ‪#‎Rama‬ had to walk across the sea. ‪#‎Ravana‬ His opponent was powerful, but Rama army was of monkeys (All odds were against Rama). Inspite of that Rama killed all the demons.
Success of men depend solely on their own capacities.
अभिप्राय: व्यक्ति की विजय स्वयं की क्षमताओं पर निर्भर करती है ll

विजेतव्या लंका चरणतरणीयो जलनिधि विपक्ष: पौलस्त्यो रणभुवि सहायाश्च कपय: ||

तथाप्येको राम:सकलमवधीद्राक्षसकुमं | क्रियासिद्धि: सत्वे भव्ति महतां नोपकरणे ||

अर्थ : प्रभु श्रीरामको रावणको हराने हेतु समुद्रको पार करना पडा | उनके शत्रु रावण शक्तिशाली थे और उनके सैनिक वानर थे अर्थात् परिस्थितियां विपरीत थीं तथापि प्रभु श्रीरामने असुरोंका संहार किया | महान व्यक्तिके यश उनकी स्वयंकी क्षमतापर निर्भर करता है, वे यशस्वी होने हेतु किस माध्यमका प्रयोग करते हैं उसपर नहीं निर्भर करता !

Posted in Uncategorized

First Chola King From Kasyapa Gotra Manu Dynasty.


First Chola King From Kasyapa Gotra Manu Dynasty.

Ramani's blog

I had posted an article that the Tamil Chola Kings were the descendents of Lord Rama’s Ikshvahu Dynasty and posted the list of Kings.

I have come across information on the origin of the term ‘Chola’ and the founder of Chola Dynasty.

There seems to have been three distinct Cholas.

Brahadeswara Temple.jpg Brahadeswara Temple,Thanjavur.Image credit. vedic odyssey.com

1.The Pre Sangam Cholas belonging to Ikshvahu Dynasty.

2.The later Cholas, of whom the Great Rajaraja Chola was one.He built the Thanjavur Brahadeswara temple  and established an Empire extending from the Godavari Basin in the north to Sri Lanka,then called Elam.( Fifth century BC to Third Century AD),

3.Rettapadi Cholas, who ruled in and from what is now called Andhra Pradesh.

The word Chola, according to Col.Gerini, is from the Sanskrit word Kaala, or Kola meaning black, indicating that the ancestors of the Cholas were pre historic Dravidians who were black.The word Kola became Chola…

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Posted in भारतीय मंदिर - Bharatiya Mandir

Halasuru Someshwara Temple


The carvings of the girija kalyana (the holy wedding of Lord Shiva and Parvathi), while King Himalaya is performing the kanyadana.

Halasuru Someshwara Temple, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

In the “Gazetter of Mysore” (1887), Benjamin Lewis Rice describes a legend behind the consecration of the temple. Kempe Gowda, while on a hunt, rode far away from his capital Yalahanka. Being tired, he rested under a tree and fell asleep. The local deity Someshwara appeared to him in a dream and instructed him to build a temple in his honor using buried treasure. In return the chieftain would receive divine favor. Kempe Gowda found the treasure and dutifully completed the temple. According to a different version of the legend, King Jayappa Gowda (1420-1450 CE) from minor dynasty called “Yelahanka Nada Prabhu” was hunting in a forest near the present Halasuru area, when he felt tired and relaxed under a tree. In a dream, a man appeared before him and told him that a linga (universal symbol of the god Shiva) was buried under the spot he was sleeping. He was instructed to retrieve it and build a temple. Jayappa found the treasure and initially built the temple out of wood. Another account attributes the temple to the Chola Dynasty with later renovations made by the Yelahanka Nada Prabhus.

I hope you like my photography. I have kept some more pictures on my page. Please do feel free to have a look and give feedback improvements
https://www.facebook.com/pandeygauravk

The carvings of the girija kalyana (the holy wedding of Lord Shiva and Parvathi), while King Himalaya is performing the kanyadana. 

Halasuru Someshwara Temple, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

In the "Gazetter of Mysore" (1887), Benjamin Lewis Rice describes a legend behind the consecration of the temple. Kempe Gowda, while on a hunt, rode far away from his capital Yalahanka. Being tired, he rested under a tree and fell asleep. The local deity Someshwara appeared to him in a dream and instructed him to build a temple in his honor using buried treasure. In return the chieftain would receive divine favor. Kempe Gowda found the treasure and dutifully completed the temple. According to a different version of the legend, King Jayappa Gowda (1420-1450 CE) from minor dynasty called "Yelahanka Nada Prabhu" was hunting in a forest near the present Halasuru area, when he felt tired and relaxed under a tree. In a dream, a man appeared before him and told him that a linga (universal symbol of the god Shiva) was buried under the spot he was sleeping. He was instructed to retrieve it and build a temple. Jayappa found the treasure and initially built the temple out of wood. Another account attributes the temple to the Chola Dynasty with later renovations made by the Yelahanka Nada Prabhus.

I hope you like my photography. I have kept some more pictures on my page. Please do feel free to have a look and give feedback improvements
https://www.facebook.com/pandeygauravk
Posted in Uncategorized

I NEVER KNEW THIS ABOUT JAPAN


I NEVER KNEW THIS ABOUT JAPAN:

Have you ever read in the newspaper that a political leader or a prime minister from an Islamic nation has visited
Japan ?

Have you ever come across news that the Ayatollah of Iran or the King of Saudi Arabia or even a Saudi Prince has visited Japan?

Japan is a country keeping Isl

am at bay. Japan has put strict restrictions on Islam and all Muslims.

The reasons are :

1) Japan is the only nation that does not give citizenship to Muslims.
2) In Japan permanent residency is not given to Muslims.
3) There is a strong ban on the propagation of Islam in Japan.
4) In the University of Japan, Arabic or any Islamic language is not taught.
5) One cannot import a ‘Koran’ published in the Arabic language.
6) According to data published by the Japanese government, it has given temporary residency to only 2 lakhs Muslims, who must follow the Japanese Law of the Land. These Muslims should speak Japanese and carry their religious rituals in their homes.
7) Japan is the only country in the world that has a negligible number of embassies in Islamic countries.
8) Japanese people are not attracted to Islam at all.
9) Muslims residing in Japan are the employees of foreign companies.
10) Even today, visas are not granted to Muslim doctors, engineers or managers sent by foreign companies.
11) In the majority of companies it is stated in their regulations that no Muslims should apply for a job.
12) The Japanese govt. is of the opinion that Muslims are fundamentalist and even in the era of globalization they are not willing to change their Muslim laws.
13) Muslims cannot even think about renting a house in Japan.
14) If anyone comes to know that his neighbour is a Muslim then the whole neighbourhood stays alert.
15) No one can start an Islamic cell or Arabic ‘Madrasa’ in Japan.
16) There is no Sharia law in Japan .
17) If a Japanese woman marries a Muslim then she is considered an outcast forever.
18) According to Mr. Kumiko Yagi, Professor of Arab/Islamic Studies at Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, “There is a mind frame in Japan that Islam is a very narrow minded religion and one should stay away from it”

Remember : The japanese are considered one of the most intelligent and advances people in the world…!!

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Posted in जीवन चरित्र

Samrat Vikramaditya Hemu Chandra The Great


Samrat Vikramaditya Hemu Chandra The Great

http://indianhistoryfact.blogspot.com/2012/12/vikramaditya-hemu-chandra-great.html

His achievements notwithstanding, he is not a household name in India. His name does not ring any bells in the collective memory of indians. I am not even sure if any physical memorial of this indian Hero exists. Anecdotally, Prithvi Raj Chauhan is considered as the last Indian ruler of Delhi. It is incorrect to think that indians made no efforts to liberate Delhi in medieval India. Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya made one such effort that succeeded – albeit for a brief interlude. As I read more about his life and his journey to the throne of Delhi, I was absolutely amazed by this great warrior-hero who succeeded in liberating India from foreign invaders – the Mughals, but fate has something for him and India in its basket. I don’t want to just narrate his life story – I want to put it in the general historical context of his times. As you will see below, his life (1501-1556) was an extremely tumultuous period in the history of India. Events that happened during this time-frame defined the course of Indian History for the next two and a half centuries. That is why I feel that it’s important for Indians to know more about Samrat Hem Chandra and his courageous efforts. He is one man who did the indians proud and many writers refer to him as the Napoleon of India for his qualities of generalship. But personally I felt nepoleon has hemu of the west

EarlyChildhood
Not much is known about his childhood and early life. In fact, historians disagree about both his birth name and birth place. K.K. Bhardwaj claims that perhaps his original name was Basant Rai, Hem Rai, Hem Raj or Hem Chandra Bhargava. R.C. Majumdar writes that “he was born in a poor family of Dhansar section, living in a town in the southern part of Alwar”. Muslim historian Badayuni has described him as a resident of a small town called Rewari in the taluk of Mewat, and began his life as a green vendor. Others believe that he was a hawker in the town of Mewat .  Historians mention that brought up in a religious environment, he was educated in Sanskrit, Hindi, Persian, Arabic and Arithmatic. He was also trained in Horse riding and was fond of wrestling (Kushti) . His rise to fame did not begin until late 1530s when he came in contact with the officers of Sher Shah Suri. But events that happened in north India during his youth were not as dull!

HemChandra’sYouth
In the early 1500s, huge portions India were under afghan occupation. South India(vijayanagara’s), Rajputana, Orissa and Assam were the only parts of India that remained free. In Delhi, Lodi dynasty was ruling large parts of north India. Independent sultanates ruled Gujarat and Central India. Under the afgan occupation, Indians was already burdened by the crushing Jizya tax. At such point in 1526, a Central Asian tribal warrior named Babur attacked India. His armies marched from Kabul to Delhi via Punjab. In the first battle of Panipat (April 21, 1526) Babur defeated the joint armies of Ibrahim Lodi and Raja Vikramjit – king of Gwalior – and captured the throne of Delhi. Now Rajputs under the leadership of Rana Sangramsingh of Chittor challenged Babur. They were also supported by Hasan Khan Moe. But unfortunately their joint forces too were defeated by Babur in the battle of Khanwa. With this victory Babur now controlled north-western India as well as parts of Gangetic Plains.

“]

Babur’s March to Delhi from Samarkand in present day Uzbekistan

After more than 450 years, it’s difficult to imagine how different those times were. For starters, Indian children of school going age did not learn to memorize ‘Babur the Brave’, ‘Akbar the Great’, ‘Aurangzeb the Cruel’! Indians then had rather simple criteria. They considered anyone who was not from India and had not a single drop of Indian blood in his body (Babar, Humayun and Akbar) but still wanted to rule India as a foreign aggressor. And indeed that’s how the perception of Indians regarding the Mughal period should be. Today, the geopolitics of South Asian subcontinent has changed so drastically, that it is easy to forget that the Kabul-Kandahar region – known as Gandhara in early days was considered very much a part of Indian civilization. With this perception in mind, the Afghans considered themselves as natives and were considered by Indians as natives of the land. Whereas Mughals – the Central Asian tribal people attacking India were obviously foreign aggressors. Now that explains why Raja of Gwalior offered his help to an Afghan ruler – Ibrahim Lodi or why Hasan Khan Meo chose to fight with Rana Sangramsingh rather than with Babur.

Babur’s reign was nothing short of disaster for India in general and Hindus in particular. Guru Nanak, who was a contemporary of Babur and witnessed cruelties of Babur’s armies on the people, wrote in detail about the atrocities committed by him and his troops. Guru Nanak poignantly wrote ‘The Creator has sent Babur the Mughal as Yama disguised. There was so much slaughter that the people screamed – Didn’t you feel compassion, Lord?’

Mercifully, Babur died (January 1531) before he could consolidate his hold on India and was succeeded by a weak son – Humayun. Sensing an opportunity, Sher Khan Suri – an Afghan commander of the Lodis – who was stationed in Bihar during Ibrahim Lodi’s rule, attacked Humayun. He defeated the Mughals in the battles of Chausa and Kanauj and drove them out of Delhi [9]. He captured Delhi in May 1540, declared himself the emperor and took the name of Sher Shah Suri. His ascent was miraculous – born in a peasant family, he rose from the rank of a private and ultimately became the king of most of the northern India. After capturing Delhi, he pursued Humayun and chased the Mughal army out of India. Humayun survived only by fleeing to the refuge of the king of Iran. Sher Shah Suri’s victories, though ridding India from the foreign occupation for the time being, did not give respite to the large Indian populace.

Rise of hemu Chandra

Hem Chandra’s rise began at around this time. He was based in Rewari – 55 miles from Delhi – and started supplying cereals to Sher Shah’s army. Slowly he started other supplies like saltpeter (for gunpowder) to Sher Shah’s army and that’s when he came in contact with Ismail Shah – Sher Shah’s son.  After Sher Shah’s death in 1545, Ismail Shah succeeded him. Recognizing Hem Chandra’s caliber, he initially appointed Hem Chandra as Shahang-i-Bazar, a Persian word meaning ‘Market Superintendent,’ who managed the mercantile system throughout the empire. This post gave Hem Chandra an opportunity to interact with the king frequently in order to apprise him of the trade and commercial situation of the kingdom. After proving his abilities as Market Superintendent, he rose to become Daroga-i-Chowki or Chief of Intelligence. Ismail Shah’s health deteriorated in 1552 and he shifted his base from Delhi to Gwalior, at which point he promoted Hem Chandra to Governor of Punjab. Hem Chandra held this position until Ismail Shah’s death in October 1553.

After his death, Ismail Shah’s nephew Adil Shah killed Ismail Shah’s 12 year old son Firuz and usurped the throne. But he was not a capable ruler. Soon after becoming king, he appointed Hem Chandra as his Wazir or Prime Minister and started neglecting his responsibilities. Unhappy with the murder of Firuz and Adil Shah’s overall incompetence, various members of the Suri dynasty revolted against him. Soon, the Suri kingdom got divided into 4 large pieces [10]. Sikandar Suri declared himself the king of Punjab. Ismail Suri captured Delhi and Agra. Muhammad Suri declared himself the ruler of Bengal. Only Bihar up to the vicinity of Agra remained in possession of Adil Shah. In addition to these members of the royal family, many Afghan governors declared independence and refused to pay taxes to Adil Shah.  During this time as Prime Minister, Hem Chandra proved his mettle. Commanding Adil Shah’s army, he fought numerous battles defeating each rebelling governor. He defeated and killed Muhammad Shah Suri – self appointed ruler of Bengal. He defeated Ibrahim Shah Suri twice. Most importantly, with these victories, he not only controlled the administration and the treasury, but also the victorious armies of the empire.  In the meantime, Sikandar Suri too defeated Ibrahim Suri and captured Delhi and Agra.

At this time, sensing the general anarchy and disintegration of his Afghan enemies, Humayun – thoroughly defeated by Sher Shah 15 years ago but sustained and supported by Iranian support, invaded India once again. His commander Bairam Khan easily defeated Sikandar Suri and reinstated Humayun to the throne of Delhi (July 1555). But Humayun’s control over his newly conquered kingdom was tenuous at best and he died in January 1556. Hem Chandra was in Bengal when Humayun died. Humayun’s death gave Hem Chandra an ideal opportunity to defeat the Mughals. With about 50,000 soldiers, he embarked on a winning march from Bengal through present day Bihar, Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Many Mughal officers and commanders evacuated their positions and fled in panic on hearing the news of hemu invasion. Hem Chandra’s army entered Agra without a fight. He was now poised to liberate Delhi from the foreign aggressors. With a string of lightening quick victories over his enemies, he commanded the respect of his forces and trust of his officers – both Indians and Afghan. At this point, rather than acting on behalf of an ineffective king, he declared himself as the king with the consent of his commanders.

Mughal general Bairam Khan, sensing the gravity of the situation, sent reinforcements to the Governor of Delhi – Tardi Beg Khan and the Mughal Army battled Hem Chandra’s forces in present day Tughlaqabad [4]. In this battle, Hem Chandra arranged 300 elephants and selected cavalry in the center with loosely guarded front and flanks. As the battle began, Mughal forces overcame the front and even attacked Hem Chandra’s flanks. At one point it appeared as if Mughals had captured 3000 Afghan men and 400 elephants. Sensing victory, Mughal armies dispersed to plunder the enemy camp. At that point Hem Chandra charged on Tardi Beg’s camp with his reserved forces in the center. Seeing a force marching directly towards them and without any armies to stop them, the Mughal commanders fled from the battle field. The result was chaos in the Mughal forces and it resulted in their total defeat

Hemu coins

Sir Wolsey Haig writes, “Hemu was so elated by the capture of Delhi as to believe that he had already reached the goal of his ambition.”

Smith, who names Hemu the third claimant to the sovereignty of Hindustan at the time (the other two being the Suris and Akbar), asserts that Hemu after his occupation  of Delhi came to the conclusion that he had a better claim to the throne for himself rather than on behalf of Adil Shah and ventured to assume the royal state under the style of Raja Vikramaditya or Vikramaditya, a title borne by several renowned Indian Kings in ancient times. Hemu assumed the royal robes and declared himself the Emperor of India under the title of Vikramaditya.

His Afghan officers were reconciled to the ascendancy of an infidel by a liberal distribution of plunder, and probably also by the fact that Hem Chandra had proved to be a successful general.

Hemu had his formal Indian  Rajyabhishek or coronation at Purana Qila in Delhi on 7 October 1556in the presence of all the Afghan Sardars and Hindu Senapatis (military commanders).K. K.Bhardwaj says that thousands of guests were invited, along with various Rajput chiefs and Afghan governors and numerous scholars and Pandits. The festivities continued for three or four days.”Essential parts of a Hindu King’s coronation are”, writes Sir Jadunath Sarkar, “washing him (abbhishake) and holding the royal umbrella over his head (Chhatra-Dharam)” and Hemu must have followed these ancient traditions, accompanied by costly gifts and robes to priests. He made various appointments on the occasion, appointing his brother Jujharu Rai, governor of Ajmer and his nephew Rammayya, a general in his army. He also appointed his various supporters as Chhaudhuris andMuqqudams based on their merit so that they continued to maintain their respective positions in the reign of Akbar.

Thus Hemu became the first Indian emperor of North India in 350 years. According to Abul Fazl, in the Akbarnama, after winning Delhi Hemu had planned to attack and win Kabul. He made several changes in his army, including the recruitment of many Indians, but without the dismissal of any Afghan.

Administration

Because of long association with the Sur administration since the 1540s, first as a supplier of various items to Sher Shah Suri, then as Superintendent of Markets, Minister of Internal security and Governor of Punjab with Islam Shah, Prime Minister-cum-Chief of Army with Adil Shah, Hemu had great experience of administration and sound knowledge of how system works.

Although he did not have much time to rule, Hemu revitalised the administration that had flagged after the demise of Sher Shah Suri. With his knowledge of trade and commerce he gave fresh impetus to commerce throughout the country. He spared no-one, indulging in black-marketing, hoarding, overcharging and under-weighing of goods. After his conquest of Agra and Delhi, he replaced all corrupt officers. He also introduced coinage bearing his image.

Victorious Hem Chandra entered Delhi on October 6, 1556 as a sovereign. It’s difficult to imagine the exact thoughts in his mind. But it was a historical moment for India. After 350 years of almost unbroken afgan rule, a indian king had entered Delhi! Hem Chandra must be acutely aware of the significance of this moment. That is why he assumed the title of Vikramaditya – a title assumed by many illustriousindian emperors in the history of India! No wonder then that Muslim historians have described him in the nastiest of words. Badayuni – a bigot and fundamentalist – writes, ‘through treachery, deceit and fraud great Delhi fell into the hands of Hindu Hemun’ . He conveniently forgets that numerous great empires in the history of mankind have been built by great men coming from humble origins. In his own life, Hem Chandra had seen Babur and Sher Shah coming from nowhere to become emperors of northern India. As opposed to Akbar – who didn’t have a drop of Indian blood in his body and was leading an army of Turkic tribesmen with the support of Iran, Hem Chandra was a son of soil leading an army of natives – Afghans and Indians. Indeed he was leading a liberation army against foreign invaders! Moreover, it was Hem Chandra who was in charge of the administration, the treasury and the army and had a proven track record as an administrator and commander compared to Adil Shah Suri. So his behavior was not different than any able and ambitious victor. Hem Chandra was crowned at Purana Qila, on October 7, 1556 as ‘Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya’ in the presence of Afghan Sardars and Hindu Senapatis (military commanders) . He struck coins bearing his title – one of the oldest ways of asserting sovereign status. The adjoining picture shows a painting of the occasion of his coronation, where he is flanked by his Afghan and indian military commanders. His Afghan officers were reconciled to the ascendancy of a Hindu to the throne probably for a variety of reasons – Hem Chandra distributed plunder liberally among his soldiers , he had proved to be a successful general in no less than 22 battles and probably also due to the fact that they were part of a native army fighting the invaders.

Purana killa were hemu crowned as emperor of India

Second Battle of Panipat

Hem Chandra’s victories and coronation caused a lot of consternation among the Mughals. Many of Akbar’s commanders advised him to retreat to Kabul and wait for an opportune moment – like his father Humayun. However, Bairam Khan, the guardian of Akbar and chief strategist for army matters, insisted on fighting Hem Chandra in an effort to regain control of Delhi. Bairam Khan was well aware of the consequences of a loss. He and Akbar stayed back eight miles from the battle ground with preparations to flee as soon as possible to Kabul in case of a defeat.

On November 5, 1556, the Mughal army met Hem Chandra’s army at the historic battlefield of Panipat. It was the same battlefield where Akbar’s grandfather had defeated Ibrahim Lodi 30 years ago. Unsurprisingly, Bairam Khan motivated his army by a religious speech and ordered them to move for battle. Samrat Hem Chandra himself led his large army himself and leaving his main generals to stabilize is kingdom(one of the greatest mistakes that changed fate of india) sitting atop an elephant and was poised to achieve victory. But alas, destiny had something else in mind. All of a sudden the Emperor was hit in the eye by a stray arrow. In spite of that, Hem Chandra pulled the arrow by his hands and exhorted his forces to charge ahead. Unfortunately, he soon collapsed unconscious in his hauda due to severe bleeding. His collapse changed everything. Looking at their king collapsed, his armies lost heart, and no commander came forward to rise to the occasion and to make coordinated decisions. As a result of this confusion, Hem Chandra’s armies started losing the battle line – and an easy victory got converted into a disastrous defeat!

Unconscious, the almost dead Hem Chandra was captured by Shah Qulin Khan and carried to the camp of Akbar where he was beheaded by Bairam Khan. His head was sent to Kabul, where it was hung outside Delhi Darwaza, while his body was placed outside Purana Quila in Delhi – the same place where he was coroneted earlier. Thus, a courageous effort to liberate Bharatwarsha from invaders came to an abrupt end! Akbar and Bairam Khan entered Delhi the next day. Genocide was ordered of the ‘community of Hemu’ – Indians and his main Afghan supporters. Thousands of indians were killed and minarets were built of the skulls of the dead. At least one painting of such minarets is displayed in ‘Panipat Wars Museum’ at Panipat in Haryana. Such minarets were still in existence about 60 years later as described by Peter Mundy, a British traveller who visited India
during Jahangir time son of akbar

Significance

One cannot but feel disheartened at the tragic loss of Samrat Hem Chandra’s armies in the second battle of Panipat. Many historians mention this loss as Hem Chandra’s bad luck – it was in fact India’s bad luck! When it appeared that after 350 years of oppression Indians of North India would finally see the light of freedom – occupation returned with a greater force and cohesion. The Central Asian Mughals remained a dominant power in India until 1709 – the death of Aurangzeb. And it was not until 1737 that a Indian army – the Marathas – finally reached Delhi.

But Hem Chandra’s defeat does not make his valiant effort any less significant. First of all, he was born in an ordinary family and rose by sheer dint of hard work. He was not born in a traditional Kshatriya family, but the caste barriers – a traditional weakness of Indian society – could not stop him from becoming an Emperor. Although he was a Hindu under Islamic rule, he did not remain content to be a mere king-maker – but declared himself a sovereign when an opportune moment came! And he did so in style – assuming the title of Vikramaditya was a clear sign of his desire to present his rule as a continuum of the ancient traditions of India. He was the last Indian who became the ruler of Delhi and might have been successful in creating a Indian dynasty.

Few questions need to answer by Indians

When I think of this last Indian Samrat and his accomplishments, two questions come to my mind to which there are no satisfactory answers. The first obvious question is – Why did no one take inspiration from him? Why did no one try to be a Samrat after Hem Chandra? Did the genocides at the hands of Mughals terrorize Indians to such an extent that they lost heart? Within 15 years of Hem Chandra’s defeat, Indians suffered major reversals. Mughals soon dominated most of Rajputana and in 1568 defeated the king of Orissa – Mukundadeva. In 1565, Deccan Sultanates defeated Aliya Rama Raya of Vijayanagara Empire in the Battle of Talikota . Did these reversals dishearten Indians so much that they even stopped trying? I guess we will never know…

Many historians studying the history of 16th century India have been fascinated by Hem Chandra’s life story. Historian K. K. Bhardwaj even compares him to Napoleon. There are some obvious similarities between these two men – both came from humble backgrounds, won battle after battle and rose to become emperors in their own right, but got defeated at crucial moments and those defeats completely nullified their hard earned gains. But I must say that the similarities end here. Napoleon is still considered a hero in France and is a well known figure even beyond Europe. Hem Chandra is not so lucky. Forget being a world renowned figure, he is forgotten even by Indians. That brings me to the second question – Why do very few Indians even know him?

One easy explanation is that history is written by the victors. So, no wonder that Hem Chandra’s character was painted in the darkest possible colors by  historians. Even to the British rulers, he was naturally inconvenient. Why would they be interested in informing Indians about a man who challenged foreign occupation and attempted to liberate the country? But unfortunately, even after independence, he is neglected by his brothers. In this scheme of things our government is playing, and there in capabilities there is no place for a liberator of Indians who stands as a contradiction to such fantasies. So, history textbooks in India usually neglect him as a mere foot-note in Akbar’s life.

But neglect by historians is not the only reason. It has also to do with the unfortunate lack of collective historical consciousness among Indians. It is so stark that even a persian historian like Al-Beruni laments at one point that “unfortunately the Indians do not pay much attention to the historical order of things!” This attitude of Indians has resulted in a pathetic situation in which Bollywood makes movies about real or imaginary events in Akbar’s life – in the process eulogizing a foreign invader; but hardly anyone knows about Hem Chandra’s efforts. It is said that a society is judged by how it treats its worse-off. What should one say about the Indian society that neglects even the best among itself?

We Indians know everything but we don’t know ourselves someone has to come from outside to educate us. If anyone among us try to educate we won’t listen to him until foreigner says yes He is correct then we believe him, but not what our brother said but the words came from a foreigner mouth. Come on India we have a great culture and history we have great universities way back 1000bc that’s was 2500 years before any modern universities come in to existing  our societies are highly developed on education, culture ,infrastructure,  what not everything we reached heights of development in human indexing there is no point to get lessons from so called west . It was our history that makes what we are today so doesn’t neglect it. Please Know what we are and from where we came from.

Let’s correct this mistake

So it’s up to us to rectify this mistake! As the descendants of rich culture and heritage, it’s our duty to strive towards according Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya the true place he deserves in Indian history. As mentioned above, there is not much point in expecting anything from the Indian education system in this regard. It is up to us – ordinary people like you and me to give him his due place. It’s not that nothing has been done in this regard. Historians like K.K. Bhardwaj and R.C. Majumdar have written books detailing his inspiring life story. At the time of writing, there is a Wikipedia entry and a Facebook community for him. This article is another feeble step in that direction. But please do not let it remain a cry in the wilderness. First of all, the efforts to resurrect the memories of this forgotten hero definitely need to move beyond academia and the blogosphere. His story should reach general populace and widely circulate – either in the form of movies, documentaries, plays or short story-books. Other efforts would be to locate the coins he struck in his name and educate people about those. But let us not rest until the memories of Hem Chandra’s valiant efforts are firmly etched in the Indian consciousness!
Statue of last Hindu Emperor of India,Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, at Panipat, who lost his life in the second battle of panipat
the heights of insult look at the above  photo, that photo was statue of hemu at the panipat and the inscription say hemu was a one of the warrior of second panipat battle . finally they dragged a great general and emperor of India to ordinary warrior. My request is if we don’t recognize him that’s ok but don’t insult him

Posted in जीवन चरित्र

Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya (Hemu) – One Of The Greatest Hindu Warrior.


Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya (Hemu) – One Of The Greatest Hindu Warrior.

http://www.thebravesandsmarts.com/2013/08/samrat-hem-chandra-vikramaditya-hemu.html

A Brief Introduction:

Hemu

Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya,popularly known as Hemu, was a Hindu emperor of north India during the sixteenth century AD, This was one of the crucial periods in Indian history, when the Mughals and Afghans were desperately vying each other for power to rule over India. He fought Afghan rebels across North India from the Punjab to Bengal and the Mughal forces of Akbar and Humayun in Agra and Delhi, winning 22 battles without a single setback.

In 1556, Hemu acceded the throne of Delhi, becoming the new King of Delhi for a short span of time. He was man who made the Hindus proud by liberating India from foreign invaders. Hemu re-established the native Hindu rule (Hindu Raj) in North India, after over 350 years of Muslim rule. Many writers refer to him as the Napoleon of India for his qualities of generalship. Hemu sacrificed his life fighting Mughals in the “Second Battle Of Panipat”, which is also called as “The Last Stand Of The Hindus”.

Birth and Early Life:

Hemu was born at Maccheri Devat village of Alwar District in Rajasthan in the year 1501. His father Rai Puran Das, a Brahmin, was a Purohit ( temple priest ), who performs marriage ceremonies as a profession. However, due to persecution of Hindus, who performed religious ceremonies, by Mughals, Rai Puran Das gave up as Purohit and moved to Qutabpur (now Hemu Nagar) in Rewari in Mewat,what is present day Haryana. Where Hemu was brought up and got educated.

After leaving Maccheri, Hemu’s father started trading in salt in Qutabpur for their livelihood, and later he was beheaded by Akbar’s forces on refusal to convert to Islam, at the age of 82, in the year 1556.

Hemu was brought up in a religious environment. Apart from learning Sanskrit and Hindi, Hemu was also educated in Persian, Arabic language. During his childhood, he was fond of exercise and wrestling and while crushing salt in an iron pot, he would monitor his strength. He was trained in horse-riding at his friend Sehdev’s village. His friend Sehdev was a Rajput and he participated in all the battles that Hemu later fought except the Second Battle of Panipat.

Also read: Rani Lakshmibai – A Brave Queen Of Jhansi

Rise Of Hemu :

Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya
In 1530’s, At a very young age, Hemu came in contact with the officers of Sher Shah Suri, where he started supplying food/cereals to Sher Shah Suri’s army. Slowly he started supplying other important things to Suri’s army like Saltpetre or Potassium Nitrate (Gunpowder). Hemu also laid the foundation of brass cannons casting and manufacturing industry in Rewari, which remains an important Brass/Copper manufacturing centre even today.

After Sher Shah Suri’s death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became the new ruler of North India. Islam Shah recognised the calibre, and administrative skills of Hemu and made him his personal adviser. He consulted Hemu in a variety of matters like trade and commerce, statesmanship, diplomacy and general politics.

Islam Shah initially appointed Hemu as Shahang-i-Bazar, a Persian word, meaning ‘Market Superintendent’, to manage commerce throughout the empire. This post gave Hem Chandra an opportunity to interact with the king frequently in order to apprise him of the trade and commercial situation of the kingdom.

After proving his abilities as ‘Market Superintendent’, Hemu rose to become Chief of Intelligence or Daroga-i-Chowki (Superintendent of Post). In 1552, Islam Shah’s health started deteriorating and he shifted his base from Delhi to Gwalior, which was considered safer than Delhi. Hemu was then deputed as Governor to the Punjab to safeguard the region against the Mughal invasion. Hemu held this position until Islam Shah’s death in October 30, 1553.

After Islam Shah’s death, he was succedded by his 12 year old son Firoz Khan who was killed within three days by Adil Shah Suri, who was a nephew of Sher Shah Suri.Then Adil Shah ascended the throne as the last sultan of the united empire.The new king Adil was an indolent pleasure-seeker and a drunkard who faced revolts all around his kingdom. Adil Shah took Hemu as his Chief Advisor and entrusted all his work to him. Later, Adil Shah appointed Hemu as his Vazier (Wazir ). After some time, Adil Shah became insane and Hemu became the virtual king.

Many Afghan governors rebelled against the weak King Adil Shah and refused to pay the taxes, but Hemu quelled them. Ibrahim Khan, Sultan Muhhamad Khan, Rukh Khan Nurani, Taj Karrani and several other Afghan rebels were defeated one by one and killed by Hemu.

Since Hemu was a native Indian and at the time Afgans also considered themselves to be natives, Therefore, Hemu got support of both Hindus and Afghans against the Mughals, as Mughals were considered as foreigner at that time.

Also read: Ashoka The Great (Recommended)

Hemu’s Army :

It is stated that Hem Chandra had a large army and his army was five times superiorthan the Akbar’s army. However, recruitment of Hindus considerably increased during his rule. His army consisted of infantry, cavalry, artillery and large elephants.General Ram Chandra (Rammaya) and Shadi Khan Kakkar, the Afghan governor from Sambhal, were two of his most noted generals who commanded large forces in the Second Battle of Panipat.

Famous Battles Of Hemu :

Hemu faught various battles in his lifetime and won every single battle except the “Battle of Panipat”, where fate didn’t favour him.

The Battle Of Chapparghat :

In 1555, Hemu was sent to quell Ibrahim Shah Suri, who was brother in law of Adil Shah and a rebel. He was defeated by Hemu twice, once near Kalpi and again near Khanua. In the meantime, Adil Shah was attacked by Mohammed Shah of Bengal. The ruler of Bengal had conquered up to Jaunpur; intending to occupy Kalpi in order to proceed to Delhi.  Under such circumstances, Adil had to recall Hemu to Kalpi. Hemu led the army brilliantly, again showing his qualities of generalship. Muhammad Shah was defeated and killed at Chhapparghatta near Kalpi. Adil captured Bengal and appointed Shahbaz Khan as the Governor.

Capture Of Agra:

Agra Fort
Agra Fort won by Hemu before winning Delhi.
After the victory of the Mughal ruler Humayun over Adil Shah’s brother Sikander Suri, Mughals regained Punjab, Delhi and Agra after a gap of 15 years on July 23, 1555. Hemu was in Bengal when Humayun died on January 26, 1556. Humayun’s death gave Hemu an ideal opportunity to defeat Mughals. He started a winning march from Bengal through present day Bihar, Eastern UP and Madhya Pradesh. The Mughal fauzdars evacuated their positions and fled in panic. In Agra, an important Mughal stronghold, the commander of Mughal forces Iskander Khan Uzbeg ran away from Agra hearing about Hemu’s invasion, without a fight. Ettawah, Kalpi, Bayana,the present day central and western UP, all came under Hemu’s dominion.

Battle of Delhi:

Purana Qila Delhi
Purana Qila, Delhi, India
After Capturing Agra, Hemu served notice for a march on Delhi. Sensing the threat of being attacked by Hemu, the Moghul Governor of Delhi Tardi Beg Khan, wrote toAkbar that, “Hemu had captured Agra and intended to attack the capital Delhi, which could not be defended without reinforcements”. Realising the gravity of the situation, Bairam Khan,who was Akbar’s guardian and chief strategist, sent his ablest lieutenant, Pir Muhammad Sharwani, to helpTardi Beg Khan. A war council was held at Delhi and plans were made to face Hemu. The Moghul army decided to face Hemu at Tughlaqabad.
Tughlaqabad Fort
Tughlaqabad Fort, Delhi around which ‘Battle for Delhi 1556′ took place.
In1556, as per the plan made by Mughals,Tardi Beg Khan and the Mughal Army battled Hem Chandra’s forces inTughlaqabad. In this battle, Hemu adopted the tactics of reserve and thrust, Hemu arranged 300 choice elephants and a force of selected horsemen as a reserve in the center with loosely guarded front and flanks. As the battle began, Mughal forces overcame the front and even attacked Hem Chandra’s flanks. At one point it looked like Mughals were easily going to win the battle, as Mughals had captured 400 elephants and slew 3000 Afghan men already. Sensing victory, Mughal armies dispersed to plunder the enemy camp and Tardi Beg was left in the field thinly guarded.

At that point Hem Chandra charged on Tardi Beg’s camp with his reserved forces in the center. Seeing a force marching directly towards them and without any armies to stop them, the Mughal commanders fled from the battle field. The result was chaos in the Mughal forces and it resulted in their total defeat.

In this battle,Hemu was helped by reinforcements from Alwar with a contingent commanded by Hazi Khan.

Also read: Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

Coronation Of Hemu :

Coronation of Hemu

After winning the battle of Delhi, Hemu triumphantly entered Delhi and His Rajyabhishek (coronation) as Samrat ( Samrat is a Hindi word, meaning an unchallengeable warrior – one who has won all the battles fought ) was held at Purana Qila in Delhi on 7 October 1556 in the presence of all the Afghan Sardars and Hindu Senapatis (military commanders), assuming the title of “Vikramaditya”, (King whose Effulgence is equal to the Sun’s) that had been adopted by many Hindu kings since Vedic times.

After coronation Hemachandra Vikramaditya consolidated his position. He raised an army of 30,000 Hindu soldiers. He also won the loyality of Pathans by liberal treatment and distribution of cash awards which he gave to them from time to time. Due to this a large part of their artillery and nearly 500 elephants became part of his formidable force. With this army he prepared himself to drive the Mughals out.

Administration Under Hemu :

Coins minted by Hemu
Coins minted by Hemu

Because of long association with the Sur administration since the 1540s, first as a supplier of various items to Sher Shah Suri, then as Superintendent of Markets, Minister of Internal security and Governor of Punjab with Islam Shah, Prime Minister-cum-Chief of Army with Adil Shah, Hemu had great experience of administration and sound knowledge of how system works.

Although he did not have much time to rule, Hemu revitalized the administrative set-up that had flagged after the demise of Sher Shah Suri. With his thorough knowledge of trade and commerce he gave fresh impetus to commerce throughout the country. He spared no-one, indulging in black-marketing, hoarding, overcharging and under-weighing of goods. After his conquest of Agra and Delhi, he replaced all corrupt officers.He also introduced coinage bearing his image.

Second Battle Of Panipat :

Second Battle Of Panipat
Second Battle Of Panipat
On hearing of Hemu’s serial victories and the fall of large territories like Agra and Delhi, the Mughal army at Kalanaur lost heart and many commanders refused to fight Hemu. Most of his commanders advised Akbar to retreat to Kabul, which would serve better as a strong-hold. However, Bairam Khan, Akbar’s guardian and chief strategist, insisted on fighting Hemu in an effort to gain control of Delhi.

On 5 November 1556, the Mughal army met Hemu’s army at the historic battlefield of Panipat. Bairam Khan exhorted his army in a speech with religious overtones and ordered them to move for the battle. Akbar and Bairam Khan stayed in the rear, eight miles from the battleground, with the instructions to leave India in case of defeat. The Mughal army was led by Ali Kuli Khan, Sikandar Khan and Abdulla Khan Uzbeg.

On the other hand Hemu led his army himself into battle, atop an elephant. His left was led by his sister’s son General Ramiya and the right by Shadi Khan Kakkar. He was on the cusp of victory, but then providence took a hand and a stray arrow hit the eye of Hemu. Inspite of that, Hem Chandra pulled the arrow by his hands and exhorted his forces to charge ahead. Unfortunately, he soon collapsed unconscious due to severe bleeding. This led to confusion amongst the soldiers, with no supreme commander to coordinate decisions. Thus a sure victory was converted by a stroke of chance into defeat. According to Abul Fazl, 5000 soldiers of Hemu were slain.

Also read: Prithviraj Chauhan.

Death :

Unconscious and at death’s door, Hemu was captured by Shah Qulin Khan (a follower and distant relative of Bairam) and carried to the Mughal camp for execution. According to Badayuni Bairam Khan asked Akbar to behead Hemu so that he could earn the title of Ghazi (warrior).

Akbar replied: “He is now no better than a dead man; how can I strike him ? If he had sense and strength I would try my sword (that is I would fight him).”

However, on the insistence of Bairam Khan, Hemu was first struck by Akbar, to earn the title of “Ghazi”, then he was beheaded by Bairam Khan. Hemu’s head was sent to Kabul in Afghanistan, where it was hanged outside the Delhi Darwaza,to bo shown to Afghans to prove that the great Hindu warrior is dead, while his body was placed in a gibbet outside Purana Quila in Delhi to terrorise the Hindus.

Aftermath Of War :

Skulls Minaret build by Akbar
‘Beheaded Skulls Minaret built by Akbar of Hem Chandra’s relatives and supporters after battle at Panipat.
After Hemu’s death, a genocide was ordered by Bairam Khan of the community of Hemu (Hindus) and his main Afghan supporters. Thousands of persons were killed to create terror among Hindus and minarets were built of the skulls of the dead. At least one painting of such minaretts is displayed in “Panipat Wars Museum” at Panipat in Haryana. Such minarets were still in existence about 60 years later as described by Petre Mundy, a British traveler who visited India during the time of Jahangir.

Memorials:

Statue of Hem Chandra Vikramaditya at Panipat, India
Statue Of Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, at Panipat,India