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Pakistan Temple


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Pakistan Temple

Shri Varun Dev Mandir of Manora Island

Shri Varun Dev Mandir of Manora IslandIn the past we have shared with you some photos of Manora Island under the title views of Manora. Today we will go on an exclusive tour of Shri Varun Dev mandir located at the Manora beach.

The mandir is unfortunately in a bad condition of disrepair and salty-rusty sea breeze is eating away into the structure fast. When I visited the mandir on Jan 7, 2007, it appeared deserted. There were unfortunate signs of human vandalism also where it looked like people took away with them any item salvagable. The structure still appeared grand and from left over tile work and decorations it showed its glorious past.

Our avid reader Khair Soomro saheb helped me in translating this tablet. It reads:

“dedication from sons in the sacred memory of Seth Harchand Mal Dayal Das of Bhriya”

or in other words: “An offering from sons in the loving memory of their father Seth Harchand Mal Dayal Das of Bhriya”. (Bhriya is a town near Khairpur Sindh.)

I asked my good friend Sridhar to translate the devnagri script for us and here was his reply:

“The top line has the character ‘Om’. It is just an auspicious syllable that is there in most prayers and is also present in most places of worship. The second line has the name of the temple (and presumably the chief deity worshipped there). It says ‘Shri Varun Dev Mandir’. The name also looks like ‘Shri Arun Dev Mandir’ (the ancient way of writing ‘A’ in Arun could well be imagined in that character, which is not that clear. But I think, on balance that it is Varun Dev and not Arun. According to Hindu mythology Varuna is the God of the oceans.

There is no worship of Varuna that I have come across personally in India, though I would not be completely surprised at the existence of this temple in Karachi because of the enormous diversity in the Hinduism practiced in different parts of the subcontinent. Also, people who have livelihoods related to the ocean, for instance, fishermen, might worship Varuna. If this temple is on the beach in Karachi this could well be an explanation – it might have been built by fishermen who worshipped Varuna.”

I have a sincere hope that Government of Pakistan takes care of these places of worship. If nothing else then atleast the structure should be saved from the people who take away tiles and anything salvagable for petty profits. Many people visit the mandir as it is the largest and most prominent attraction at Manora beach. A little bit of official or non-official help will go a long way in preserving our heritage.

Shri Varun Dev mandir located at the Manora beach.

(Above photo is the view of the mandir facing Arabian Sea.)

The mandir is unfortunately in a bad condition of disrepair and salty-rusty sea breeze is eating away into the structure fast. When I visited the mandir on Jan 7, 2007, it appeared deserted. There were unfortunate signs of human vandalism also where it looked like people took away with them any item salvagable. The structure still appeared grand and from left over tile work and decorations it showed its glorious past.

(2) Here is a memorial tablet in Sindhi on one of the mandir gates.

Our avid reader Khair Soomro saheb helped me in translating this tablet. It reads:

“dedication from sons in the sacred memory of Seth Harchand Mal Dayal Das of Bhriya”

or in other words: “An offering from sons in the loving memory of their father Seth Harchand Mal Dayal Das of Bhriya”. (Bhriya is a town near Khairpur Sindh.)

(3) View of the mandir from West side

(4) This tablet tells us about the sponsors of colorful tile work in two languages.

Top script is Sindhi.

(5) The tile work of mandir floor

(6) Following is the tile work on mandir’s exterior wall

(7) Looking at the mandir from east

(8) The outer gate of the mandir

I asked my good friend Sridhar to translate the devnagri script for us and here was his reply:

“The top line has the character ‘Om’. It is just an auspicious syllable that is there in most prayers and is also present in most places of worship. The second line has the name of the temple (and presumably the chief deity worshipped there). It says ‘Shri Varun Dev Mandir’. The name also looks like ‘Shri Arun Dev Mandir’ (the ancient way of writing ‘A’ in Arun could well be imagined in that character, which is not that clear. But I think, on balance that it is Varun Dev and not Arun. According to Hindu mythology Varuna is the God of the oceans. There is no worship of Varuna that I have come across personally in India, though I would not be completely surprised at the existence of this temple in Karachi because of the enormous diversity in the Hinduism practiced in different parts of the subcontinent. Also, people who have livelihoods related to the ocean, for instance, fishermen, might worship Varuna. If this temple is on the beach in Karachi this could well be an explanation – it might have been built by fishermen who worshipped Varuna.”

(9) View from the outer most gate of the mandir compound

I have a sincere hope that Government of Pakistan takes care of these places of worship. If nothing else then atleast the structure should be saved from the people who take away tiles and anything salvagable for petty profits. Many people visit the mandir as it is the largest and most prominent attraction at Manora beach. A little bit of official or non-official help will go a long way in preserving our heritage.

Swami Naraian Temple M.A. Jinnah Road

Hindu Temple fairly close from the Karachi City Municipal office building
across the street. 

Security and a Large gate. Guards there to ask name, religion etc. 

Very beautiful old temple

Past that dargah on the main road just off sand and dirt area after the ocean, I saw a large open area, fenced off area.

Fence were small enough so be able to see small structure in this open area. It looked kind of stange. I asked the guard what is it? He said it is a Hindu temple. I asked if I can go in. He pointed to a very small walk way on one end of this place to go in. There were other set of people 5 or 6 sitting around a small fire to keep warm.  They asked my name etc. and then I take my shoes off and go down the stairs and see this first HINDU temple in Karachi, Pakistan

A old lady at the temple was telling me that this is a very “PRACHEEN” old temple. At times also submerged in ocean water for brief time during major sea storms.  

This temple was shut down for many years after partition. And it did not got destroyed

There was arti in the evening.

This temple also has a small kitchen and they give free food to needy and those who have ability give donations for the food and to support the temple.

Before leaving people upstairs by entrance around the fire
to keep them selves warm, told me that all remaining Hindu temple need Government security as well as Hindu lay people security. And they also told me about one more temple that I saw later. 

One day in the summer of 2005 we decided to take a trip from Karachi to Hinglaj, Balochistan.
And so we packed our munchies and cd collection and off we went.
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but first, a quick stop for a cuppa just outside Karachi…
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Once on the Makran Coastal highway, we met a donkey-cart wala.
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… who whizzed past us at 120mph
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Soon we reached the mighty Hingol, the largest river in Balochistan.
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… where a tiny dog who had braved the crocodiles was cooling off in the midday sun.
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At this point on the highway, you take a sharp right along the river till you enter Hingol National Park.
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Hingol National Park, covering an area of about 610,043 ha, is the largest national park in Pakistan.
It is home to a variety of birds, mammals and reptiles.
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From here on, however, the only wild animals we came across was a lone cow
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… and, after a great deal of squinting into the sun …
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… a bird was spotted, which none of us could identify.
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Further along the river is Nani Mandir, a Hindu temple.
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A small stream flows in front of it…
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… in which there was a frog.
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but ”poof”… not for long!
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hmm. Wonder where it went.
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We trekked a bit further up the small valley…
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… before turning back to head towards the highway.
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Soon as we hit the highway back to Karachi, a sandstorm hits us.
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Barely able to see 50 feet ahead of us, we try searching for the mud volcanoes to our right.
We go off the highway, and with a bit of luck and a lot of sand, find what we went looking for.
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Behold the Chandra Gupt!
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The 450 feet high mud volcano, one of the biggest in the region, is considered sacred by the Hindu community.
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Mud volcanoes are common in the coastal areas of Baluchistan. They gently emit mud, water and a mixture of gases into the air.
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And sometimes even desert beetles, such as this beauty found at the base of the volcano.

Katas Raj Temple Pakistan

Katasraj temple is a Hindu temple situated in the Chakwal district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dedicated to Shiva, the temple has existed since the days of Mah?bh?rata and the Pandava brothers spent a substantial part of their exile at the site. The Pakistan Government is considering nominating the temple complex for World Heritage Site status. It also proposes to spend about Rs 20 million in three phases for the restoration of the complex.

Most of the temples, located some 40 km from the modern city of Chakwal in the Potohar region of northern Punjab in Pakistan, were built during the reign of Hindu kings. These several temples were built around 900 years ago or more, although the earliest of the Katasraj temples dates back to the latter half of the 6th century A.D. Scholars believe that most of the temples were actually constructed when the Shahi kingdom, driven from Afghanistan when their ethnic cousin Mahmud of Ghanavi came to power, fled to the region and set up base there.

The temple was abandoned by local Hindus when they migrated to East Punjab in 1947. It has always been the site of holy pilgrimage for people of various faiths. Even nowadays, worshippers from all faiths perform pilgrimages to the temple every year and bathe in the sacred pool around which Katasraj is built.

The Katas site houses the Satgraha, a group of seven ancient temples, remains of a Buddhist stupa, a few medieval temples, havelis and some recently constructed temples, scattered around a pond considered holy by Hindus. The temples at Katas are mostly constructed on square platforms. The elevation of the sub shrines seems to form a series of cornices with small rows of pillars, crowned by a ribbed dome.

The Ramachandra temple is situated to the east of the Hari Singh Haveli and is closed from all sides except for an entrance on the east. The double-storied structure has eight rooms of various dimensions on the ground floor and a staircase at the south leading to the first floor. The temple has two jharokas (balconies) that have been severely damaged.

The Hanuman temple is on the western extreme of a high rectangular enclosure with entrances on the south and the north. The temple’s ceiling is undecorated, and lime-plastered. The Shiva temple is also built on a square platform. Its entrance is a recessed round arch with faint cusps and a rectangular opening to the north.

Katasraj temple complex is believed to date back to the Mahabharata era. There are stories about the Pandavas spending time there during their long exile. The lake in the complex is believed to have magical powers and supposed to be where Yudhisthira defeated the Yaksha with his wisdom to bring his brothers back to life.

In October-November 2006, more than 200 Hindu pilgrims (yatrees) came from outside of Pakistan to visit Katas Raj.

The mention of Katas Raj, located in the salt range 18 miles south of Chakwal, is found inMaha Bharat written in 300 BC. The etymology of this place as narrated in the old edition of Tarikh-i-Jhelum (History of Jhelum) is that according to Brahaman belief, Shiv Devta wept so profusely on the death of his beloved wife Satti that two holy ponds – one at Pushkar of Ajmair and other at Katak Shell – came into being with his tears. In Sanskrit, the word  – Katak Shell – means chain of tears which later on was pronounced as ‘Katas’.

Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha and President Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) L.K Advani also visited Katas Raj to inaugurate the conservation work atSatghrah temple in June this year.The photo to the right is from that occasion.

According to Gen Cunningham, Katas was considered the second largest holy place in Punjab for Hindu pilgrims afterJawala Mukhi. It is said famous Pando brothers spent 12 years in Katas and built the temples of Satghara. It is said Al-Beruni also spent some time at Katas to learn Sanskritin a linguistic university which, at that time, was established here. Temples at Katas have been transferred from the federal government to the Punjab Archaeology Department recently.

Katas Raj is also the place where Alberuni attempted to measure the circumference of the Earth, studied Sanskrit and wrote his renowned Kitab-ul-Hind (Book of Hind) which depicted the religion, scientific knowledge, and social customs of Hindus. Paras Nath Jogidrew his last breath on Katas. Jagat Guru Nanak Ji also visited the place on the 1st of Visakh. Katas came to be known as Nanaknawasand was a site of contemplation for many large groups of mystics, ascetics and jogis. According to Hindu beliefs, taking bath in the holy pond at the site washes away all sins and makes man innocent.

Katas Raj Temples, Chakwal, Pakistan


Katas Raj Temples, Chakwal, Pakistan
Originally uploaded by maxloxton.

Katasraj temple is a Hindu temple situated in Chakwal district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dedicated to Lord Shiva, the temple has existed since the days of Mahabharata and the Pandava brothers spent a substantial part of their exile at the site. Pakistan Government is considering nominating the temple complex for World Heritage Site status. It also proposes to spend about Rs 20 million in three phases for the restoration of the complex.

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Temples in Pakistan

There are the following Temples of Hindus in Karachi for Performing their Worship (Puja) and Places for Celebration of their Religious Festivals.

Ratneshwar Mahadev Temple At Clifton Karachi.
This Temple is situated at the seaside of Clifton. It was constructed about more than 150 years ago in a cave in a hill. Grand Mela (Fair) of Lord Shiva (SHANKER) is held for 3 days on Maha Shiva Ratri the day where in more than 25,000 people visit the Temple for celebration & rituals on this occasion every year. On every Monday, “Parsad”(sacred food) is distributed but now 7 days of week, parsad is offered.

Laxmi Narain Temple At Native Jetty Bridge, Queens Road Karachi.
This temple is constructed on land facing the sea under the Native Jetty Bridge. It was constructed about 200 years back. In this temple, Festival of Raksha Bandhan (NarialPuja), Ganesh Chaturthee, i.e. Birthday of Shri Ganesh Deva and every Chand night is celebrated. It is a sacred place for performing death rituals of Karni (11th day rituals) and offering Shiradh of Pitras and for putting final Garba Murtis in sea water on the day of Nao-Ratree & Ganesh Chaturithi.

Swami Narayan Temple Opposite Kmc M.A Jinnah Road Karachi.
It is a big Temple estate, surrounded by residential houses. It is an old temple building, which dates back to more than 150 years. In this temple, celebration of Swami Narain Jayanti, Sri Ram Navmi, Janam Ashtmi, Dasshera, Diwali and mostly all the religious festivals are celebrated by Hindus, within these premises, there is a temple of Guru Nanak where in every Chand Raat and the birthday of Guru Nanak, Wasakhee, days are also celebrated by Hindus.

Guru Nanak Darbar Aram Bagh Karachi.

Panch Mukhi Hanuman Temple Soldier Bazzar Karachi.
It is an old Temple constructed in 1927 and was under supervision of Mahant Beldev Das Gadi Nasheen. Annual Festivals of Sri Ram Navmi, Hanuman Jantee, Janam Ashtmi and Deshera are held, and on every Saturday and Tuesday, Sandur and Oil are offered on statue of Panch Mukhi Hanuman, the curer of evil effects of Shanee dev.

Seetla Mandir Bhimpura Karachi.
This is an old Temple estate belonging to goddess, Seetla Mata wherein Puja for a cure of Small pox and other skin diseases, is performed. Annual Fairs of Seetla Mata in the month of Chetra, Thadhiree, Festivals in Asu are held in this Temple.

Devi Mata Temple Near Ashi Qaber Mithader Karachi.
This Temple was constructed about 150 years back in the name of Warhai Mata Devi. On every Wednesday, Devi Puja is performed and annual Nava Ratri and other Hindus Festivals are also celebrated with Parsad & Bhandara (sacred food) under the supervision of ALL HINDUS SHEWADHARIES ASSOCIATION.

Varun God (Radha Krishna – Sita Ram) Temple At Manora Cantt
The temple is situated on seashore of Manora cantt. This temple is about 160 years old and designed perfectly as per Hindu Architecture. The temple is carved from a blackish marble. Apart of Varun Devta temple there is small temple of Shiv Shanker & statues of Hanuman & Sri Ganesh Mahraj are still in good condition. Sindhi Hindu Businessmen built this temple & renovated from time to time. After partition the temple was abandoned & illegally occupied by land grabbers, recently Pakistan Hindu Council Karachi took a bold step to renovate the same & how have brought back the sanctity of temple & have been cleaned of all the impurities & garbage inside the temple. The station Commander PNS Himalaya Manora cantt has very kindly handed over the control of this temple to Pakistan Hindu Council Karachi, from June, 2007.

The Council plans to spend about Ten million rupees for uplift & to bring this ancient temple to its original condition. Satsung will be held on every Saturday & Parsad & Bhandara would also be managed every week free of cost. Lot of devotes visit this picnic place & enjoy the waves of sea direcltly hitting the temple. There is beautiful scene early in the morning at sun rise. The atmosphere is marvelous & one feel great pleasure & peace of mind along with glimpses of the temple & Darshan of Lord Shri Ram & Lord Shri Krishna.

Hanuman Mandir Frere road sadder Karachi.

The Festivals of Shri Hanuman & Lord Shri Rama are celebrated every year. Regular weekly Satsang is held on Tuesday & Saturday. Hanuman Seva Mandal is also actively participating in all the functions & programmes & up keep the Temple properly.

Shiv Mandir Karachi Islamia College Karachi.
Durga Devi Mandir Karachi Gizri Karachi.
Krishna Mandir- Frere town Clifton Karachi.
Guru Nanik Mandir Manora Karachi.
Radha Damodar / Temple Narayan pura Ranchore Line Karachi.

Hindu Cremation Ground Karachi
Hindus observes lost rituals of cremation of dead bodies at Hindu Cremation ground situated at Old Golimar road Karachi.

Hindu Population in Pakistan
(Figures available  1998 Census)

Persons Total Population  2443614

N.W.F.P PROVINCE-7011

PUNJAB PROVINCE-116410

SINDH PROVINCE-2280842

    DISTRICT

PERSONS

    DISTRICT

PERSONS

    DISTRICT

PERSONS

01

CHITRAL

02

01

ATTOCK

190

01

JACOBABAD

50693

02

UPPER DIR

22

02

RAWALPINDI

430

02

SHIKARPUR

15855

03

LOWER DIR

24

03

JHELUM

205

03

LARKANA

27321

04

SWAT

158

04

CHAKWAL

164

04

SUKKUR

29800

05

SHANGLA

14

05

SARGODHA

142

05

GHOTKI

64817

06

BUNER

389

06

BHAKKAR

33

06

KHAIRPUR

45452

07

MALAKAND

142

07

KHUSHAB

167

07

NAUSHERO FEROZ

14458

08

KOHISTAN

6

08

MIANWALI

121

08

NAWABSHAH

30824

09

MANSHERA

72

09

FAISALABAD

903

09

DADU

34490

10

BATGRAM

117

10

JHANG

115

10

HYDERABAD

349167

11

ABBOTABAD

40

11

TOBA TEK SINGH

198

11

BADIN

226423

12

HARIPUR

36

12

GUJRANWALA

110

12

THATTA

32139

13

MARDAN

283

13

HAFIZABAD

126

13

SANGHAR

292687

14

SWABI

106

14

GUJRAT

238

14

MIRPURKHAS

296555

15

CHARSADDA

104

15

MANDI BAHAUDDIN

302

15

UMERKOT

315395

16

PESHAWAR

1224

16

SIALKOT

3577

16

THARPARKAR

369998

17

NOWSHERA

666

17

NAROWAL

1118

17

KARACHI

18

KOHAT

798

18

LAHORE

1607

18

      EAST

14802

19

HANGU

156

19

KASUR

2115

19

      WEST

 7637

20

KARAK

10

20

OKARA

670

20

     SOUTH

47003

21

BANNU

220

21

SHEIKHUPURA

1185

21

   CENTRAL

4239

22

LAKKI MARWAT

8

22

VIHARI

343

22

     MALIR

11087

23

D.I.KHAN

471

23

SAHIWAL

261

 

24

TANK

22

24

PAK PATTAN

77

 

 

 

25

MULTAN

1208

 

 

 

 

FATA AREA

1921

26

LODHRAN

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

27

KHANEWAL

249

 

 

 

 

28

D.G.KHAN

340

 

 

 

 

 

 

29

RAJANPUR

526

 

 

 

 

 

 

30

LAYYAH

810

 

 

 

 

 

 

31

MUZAFFARGARH

1115

 

 

 

 

 

 

32

BAHAWALPUR

22606

 

 

 

 

 

33

BAHAWALNAGAR

1603

 

 

 

 

 

 

34

RAHIM YAR KHAN

73506

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BALUCHISTAN PROVINCE   39146

01

QUETTA

4175

11

KOHLU

171

21

KHARAN

780

02

PISHIN

47

12

DERA BUGTI

1399

22

LASBELA

4504

03

KILLA ABDULLAH

171

13

JAFFARABAD

6529

23

KECH

979

04

CHAGAI

1941

14

NASIRABAD

1875

24

GAWADAR

721

05

LORALAI

466

15

BOLAN

4463

25

PANJGUR

457

06

BARKHAN

117

16

JHAL MAGSI

1198

 

 

07

KILLA SAIFULLAH

3

17

KALAT

1657

 

 

 

08

ZHOB

101

18

MASTUNG

1228

 

 

09

SIBI

2876

19

KHUZDAR

2962

 

 

10

ZIARAT

000

20

AWARAN

295

 

 

 

 

 

 

Festivals

Hinduism has many festivals throughout the year. The Hindu calendar usually prescribe their dates. The festivals typically celebrate events from Hindu mythology, often coinciding with seasonal changes being a predominantly agrarian society. There are festivals which are primarily celebrated by specific sects or in certain regions of the Indian subcontinent.

Some widely observed Hindu festivals are,

  • Dussera, or Durga Puja, celebrates events from Hindu mythology concerning the triumph of good over evil;

  • Diwali, the festival of lights;

  • Ganesh Chaturthi, the festival celebrating Ganesha;

  • Maha Shivaratri, the festival dedicated to Shiva;

  • Ram Navami, celebrates the birth of Rama, the seventh incarnation of Vishnu;

  • Krishna Janmastami, celebrates the birth of Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu;
    Holi, a spring festival of color and light;

Religion-Hinduism

Hinduism (known as Hindū Dharma in modern Indian languages) is a religion that originated in the Indian subcontinent. In contemporary usage Hinduism is also referred to as Sanātana Dharma, a Sanskrit phrase meaning “eternal law”.

With its origins in the Vedic civilization it has no known founder, being itself a conglomerate of diverse beliefs and traditions. It is the world’s oldest existent religion, and has approximately a billion adherents, of whom about 905 million live in India and Nepal. countries with large Hindu populations include Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mauritius, Fiji, Suriname, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago.

Hinduism contains a vast body of scriptures. Divided as revealed and remembered and developed over millennia, these scriptures expound on theology, philosophy and mythology, providing spiritual insights and guidance on the practice of dharma (religious living). Among such texts, the Vedas and the Upanishads are the foremost in authority, importance and antiquity. Other major scriptures include the Tantras, the sectarian Agamas, the Purāṇas and the epics Mahābhārata and Rāmāyaṇa. The Bhagavad Gītā, a treatise excerpted from the Mahābhārata, is sometimes called a summary of the spiritual teachings of the Vedas.

Hinduism originates from ancient Vedic traditions and other indigenous beliefs, incorporated over time. Due to its diversity Hinduism can only be defined in terms of peoples and places. It is possible to find Hindu groups whose beliefs have very little in common and nearly impossible to identify any universal belief. Prominent themes include Dharma (ethics/duties), Samsāra (The continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth), Karma (action and subsequent reaction), Moksha (liberation from samsara), and the various yogas (paths or practices). Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism share traits with Hinduism, because these religions originated in India, focus on self-improvement and aim to attain personal first hand, spiritual experiences. They along with Hinduism are collectively known as Dharmic religions

History of Hinduism

Hinduism is the oldest religion in the world. The worldwide religious tradition is based on the Vedas, beliefs, and customs of various groups in India. Hinduism’s origins include cultural elements of the Indus Valley Civilization(c. 3300–1700 BC), the Vedic religion of the Indo-Aryans, and other Indian civilizations. Being highly localized within India, Hinduism has seen many changes throughout the history of the Indian subcontinent. Over time, Hindu philosophy evolved into six schools: Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Purva Mimamsa and Vedanta.

The history/timeline of Hinduism would be a very interesting topic. As one researches more and more, more and more things keep coming. Yes, there are many sources that indicate many of the historic milestones seen by Hinduism, but is there a recorded history available ? As we see Hinduism is knowledge and experience supported religion, the ancestors have well thought of the need to record some of the important moments in the history. This history is given to us in the form of purANas and itihAsas. The word purANa means old and itihAsa means history. They refer to events that are very many thousands years old.

The history told in these purANas and itihAsas has the information as to who were the key people lived in various points of time – especially the sages and the kings and remarkable achievements by them if any. These texts apart from providing the mere information also serve as the source that inspires people about the heroes of the past. They narrate the good and evil of the past so that people could take forward the contours of positive growth and keep away from the errors.

The purANas are eighteen in count. There are also an equal number of sub purANas. (upa-purANas). They talk of the happenings of very ancient time. These typically in terms of many yugas (multi thousands years), chaturyugas (four such yugas is one chaturyuga), manvantara and kalpa. It would be quite involved task and at times impossible to assign a fixed date for these happenings. purANas came through various sources and were compiled by sage vedavyAsa. The importance that is given to the history and these purANas in Hinduism is obvious by the fact that some part of the purANas is read out as part of the daily worship in the temples along with the vedas. The knowledge of this ancient past was spread mainly through the word of mouth through the channels called paurANikas. So apart from the original theme, many later day insertions also could be found in them.

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List of Hindu Temples in Pakistan

  • Katasraj temple

  • Bhagnari Shiv Mandir, Near Kakri Ground, Karachi

  • Darya Lal Sankat Mochan Mandir, (Jholay Lal Mandir) Near Custom House, Karachi

  • Devi Mandir, Bombay Bazar, Karachi

  • Hanuman Mandir, Doli Khata, Karachi

  • Hanuman Mandir, Frere Road, Karachi

  • Hinglaj Mata Mandir, (Jagannath Akhra Mandir), Bhimpura, Karachi

  • Lakshmi Narayan Mandir, Native Jetty, Karachi

  • Mata Mandir, Doli Khata, Karachi

  • Narsingh Mahadev Mandir, Near Risala Police Station, Karachi

  • Panjmukhi Mahraj Hanoman Mandir, Soldier Bazar, Karachi

  • Rat Nageshwar Mahadev Mandir, Clifton, Karachi

  • Sheetala Mata Mandir, Bhimpura, Karachi

  • Shiv Mandir, Near Islamia College, Karachi

  • Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Light House, M.A. Jinnah Road, Karachi

  • Shri Varun Dev Mandir, Manora, Karachi

  • Salt Range temples: Punjab province (need repair)

  • Suraj Kund and Aditya Sun temple: Multan (mostly destroyed)

  • Jagannath Temple, Sialkot

  • Old temple, Sialkot (unused)

  • Saidpur temple, near Islamabad (unused)

  • Hinglaj Temple: Baluchistan

  • Shiva temple: Mohenjodaro

  • Sharda temple: Azad Kashmir (mostly in ruins and used as an army base)

  • A few banyan trees remain throughout Pakistan

  • Luv temple: Lahore (the temple which gives Lahore its name is located inside Lahore fort)

  • Krishna temple: Lahore

  • Old temple: Salarwala Sangla Hill Road, Faisalabad (formerly Lyallpur)

  • Kohati Bazar temple: Rawalpindi (now used for a school for the blind)

Hinduism Hanuman Temple Pakistan Karachi Garden 1500 Year Old

Pakistan Nagar Tour Images ( Nagar Templates )

 

Posted in गणेश देवा, भारतीय मंदिर - Bharatiya Mandir

गणेश देवताओं में सबसे अधिक बुद्धिमान हैं।


गणेश देवताओं में सबसे अधिक बुद्धिमान हैं। इसीलिए बच्चों का अध्ययन आरम्भ कराते समय उनसे ‘ऊँ गणेशाय नमः’ लिखवाया जाता है।
गणेश अपनी बुद्धिमानी के कारण ही, देवताओं में सबसे पहले पूजे जाते हैं। असल में इनकी बुद्धि इनके विचित्र सिर के कारण है। हाथी का सिर है इनका। शरीर मनुष्य का है। है न विचित्र बात ? हाथी, सभी जीवों में बुद्धिमान है इसीलिए हाथी के सिर वाले गणेश बुद्धिमान हो गए।
इनके साथ एक दुर्घटना घट गई और इन्हें हाथी का सिर धारण करना पड़ा।
जब ये बालक थे, तभी इनकी माता पार्वती ने अपने दरवाजे पर एक दिन उन्हें प्रहरी के रूप में खड़ा कर दिया। वह अन्दर कुछ कार्य कर रही थी। वह नहीं चाहती थी कि इस बीच कोई अन्दर आए। इसलिए उसने गणेश को आदेश दिया कि वह किसी को अन्दर नहीं आने दे। सबको दरवाजे के पास से वापस कर दे।
गणेश ने कइयों को अन्दर जाने से लौटा दिया। सभी अपना-सा मुँह लिये चले गए।
अब आए साक्षात् शिव। सिर पर जटा, कमर में व्याघ्र-चर्म, एक हाथ में डमरू, दूसरे में त्रिशूल। पूरे शरीर में लिपटा भस्म।
अन्दर जाना चाहा। गणेश ने रोक दिया।
‘‘क्यों ?’’ भोले शंकर क्रोधित हुए।
‘‘माँ का आदेश है, अभी कोई भीतर नहीं जा सकता।’’ गणेश अच्छी तरह दरवाजा रोककर खड़े हो गए।
‘‘छोड़ते हो कि नहीं द्वार ?’’ भगवान आशुतोष का क्रोध बढ़ता जा रहा था।
‘‘नहीं छोड़ता। उतने लोगों के लिए नहीं छोड़ा तो आपके लिए क्यों छोड़ूँगा ? आपमें कौन ऐसी बात है ?’’
‘‘मैं तुम्हारा बाप हूँ। अन्दर माता हैं तो बाहर पिता। पिता को रोकने का तुम्हें कोई अधिकार नहीं।’’
‘‘यह अधिकार माता ने ही दिया है। अन्दर नहीं जाने का आदेश सबके लिए है। आपको उससे छूट नहीं मिली है। मुक्ति। नियम सब पर समान रूप से लागू है।’’ गणेश अड़ गए।

‘‘बहुत हठी बालक को। उद्दंड भी।’’ शिव गुर्राए।
‘‘माँ का आदेश-पालक हूँ।’’
‘‘पिता माता से बड़ा होता है।’’ भगवान पशुपति ने तर्क दिया।
‘‘माता की समानता कोई नहीं कर सकता। पिता भी नहीं। मैं आपको किसी मूल्य पर अन्दर जाने की अनुमति नहीं दे सकता।’’
‘‘तो इसका परिणाम भुगतना पड़ेगा।’’ शिव का क्रोध प्रचण्ड हुआ।
‘‘मैं माँ की आज्ञा के पालन में किसी परिणाम की चिन्ता नहीं करता।’’ गणेश अपनी बात पर अड़े थे।
‘‘मृत्यु को भी नहीं ?’’
‘‘नहीं।’’
‘‘तो मुझे पुत्र-हत्या का भागी बनना पड़ेगा। मैं तुम्हें धक्का देकर अन्दर जा सकता था पर आपने आदेश का अनुपालन नहीं करने के कारण मुझे अन्दर जाने के लिए तुम्हारी गर्दन उतारनी पड़ेगी।’’ शिव और कुपित हुए।
‘‘कोई चिन्ता नहीं।’’ गणेश निर्भीक बोले, ‘‘मातृ-आज्ञा-पालन में प्राणों से भी हाथ धोना पड़े तो यह मेरा सौभाग्य ही होगा।’’
‘‘फिर यही हो।’’ कहकर भगवान शिव ने त्रिशूल से गणेश का सिर धड़ से अलग कर दिया।
कैलास पर चारों ओर हाहाकार मच गया। ‘गणेश मारे गए’, ‘गणेश मारे गए, यह बात जंगल की आग की तरह चारों तरफ फैल गई। पार्वती को भी यह सूचना उनके गणों ने दी। शिव अन्दर पहुँच चुके थे। उनके स्वागत-सत्कार की चिन्ता किए बिना गणेश-माता पार्वती द्वार के बाहर भागी।
गणेश को घेरकर कई शिव-गण, आँखों में आँसू भरे, खड़े थे। पार्वती को देखते ही सबने उनके लिए मार्ग दे दिया।
अपने पुत्र को मृत पाकर माँ की ममता सारे बाँध तोड़कर उमड़ पड़ी। उनकी आँखों से अश्रु की नदियाँ प्रवाहित होने लगीं। वह गणेश के मृत शरीर को गोद में रखकर ज़ोर-ज़ोर से विलाप करने लगीं।
उनके विलाप का स्वर अन्दर बैठे सदा शिव के कानों में भी पड़ा। उनका क्रोध काफूर हो गया और अपने कृत्य पर पश्चाताप करते हुए वह बाहर आए। पार्वती को मनाने का प्रयास किया पर गणेश-माता भगवती पार्वती का रुदन जारी रहा। वह भगवान शंकर के लाख समझाने पर भी समझने को प्रस्तुत नहीं थी।
अन्ततः शिव ने हथियार डाल दिए और पार्वती से पूछा, ‘‘तुम कैसे चुप रहोगी ?’’
पार्वती ने कहा, ‘‘मेरे पुत्र के प्राण ले लिये। इसे जीवित कीजिए तभी मैं यहाँ से उठूँगी और अन्न-जल ग्रहण करूँगी।’’
‘‘यह तुम्हारा लड़का बहुत उद्दंड था, इसने मेरी आज्ञा का उल्लंघन किया। ऐसे भी जो मर गया उसे जीवित कैसे किया जा सकता है ?’’

पार्वती ने सिसकते हुए कहा, ‘‘यह केवल मेरा लड़का नहीं आपका भी पुत्र था। यह उद्दंड भी नहीं था, मात्र मेरी आज्ञा का पालन कर रहा था। जहाँ तक मृत को जीवित करने के प्रश्न है, आप देवाधिदेव महादेव के लिए यह कौन-सा कठिन कार्य है? मुझे भुलवाने का प्रयास नहीं कीजिए। आप चाहें तो गणेश क्षण मात्र में जीवित हो सकता है। यदि आप तत्काल जीवित नहीं करते हैं तो फिर जिस त्रिशूल से इसका सिर काटा है उसी से मेरा भी काट दीजिए।
भगवान भोले शंकर विवश हो गए और उन्होंने अपने एक प्रमुख गण को कहा, ‘‘उत्तर दिशा की ओर जाओ और जो सबसे पहला प्राणी मिले उसका सिर काट लाओ।’’
गण जब उत्तर दिशा में बढ़ा तो सबसे पहले उसे एक हाथी का बच्चा दिखाई पड़ा। उसने उसका सिर काट लिया।
सिर को लाकर उसने शिव के हाथों में पकड़ा दिया। भोले शंकर ने इस सिर को गणेश की, सिर-हीन गर्दन से जोड़ दिया और गणेश जीवित हो उठ बैठे।
पार्वती बहुत प्रसन्न हुई और इस विचित्र शिशु को उठाकर उन्होंने अपने कलेजे से लगा लिया। सभी उपस्थित गण प्रसन्नता से भरकर नृत्य करने लगे।

गणेश देवताओं में सबसे अधिक बुद्धिमान हैं। इसीलिए बच्चों का अध्ययन आरम्भ कराते समय उनसे ‘ऊँ गणेशाय नमः’ लिखवाया जाता है।
गणेश अपनी बुद्धिमानी के कारण ही, देवताओं में सबसे पहले पूजे जाते हैं। असल में इनकी बुद्धि इनके विचित्र सिर के कारण है। हाथी का सिर है इनका। शरीर मनुष्य का है। है न विचित्र बात ? हाथी, सभी जीवों में बुद्धिमान है इसीलिए हाथी के सिर वाले गणेश बुद्धिमान हो गए।
इनके साथ एक दुर्घटना घट गई और इन्हें हाथी का सिर धारण करना पड़ा।
जब ये बालक थे, तभी इनकी माता पार्वती ने अपने दरवाजे पर एक दिन उन्हें प्रहरी के रूप में खड़ा कर दिया। वह अन्दर कुछ कार्य कर रही थी। वह नहीं चाहती थी कि इस बीच कोई अन्दर आए। इसलिए उसने गणेश को आदेश दिया कि वह किसी को अन्दर नहीं आने दे। सबको दरवाजे के पास से वापस कर दे।
गणेश ने कइयों को अन्दर जाने से लौटा दिया। सभी अपना-सा मुँह लिये चले गए।
अब आए साक्षात् शिव। सिर पर जटा, कमर में व्याघ्र-चर्म, एक हाथ में डमरू, दूसरे में त्रिशूल। पूरे शरीर में लिपटा भस्म।
अन्दर जाना चाहा। गणेश ने रोक दिया।
‘‘क्यों ?’’ भोले शंकर क्रोधित हुए।
‘‘माँ का आदेश है, अभी कोई भीतर नहीं जा सकता।’’ गणेश अच्छी तरह दरवाजा रोककर खड़े हो गए।
‘‘छोड़ते हो कि नहीं द्वार ?’’ भगवान आशुतोष का क्रोध बढ़ता जा रहा था।
‘‘नहीं छोड़ता। उतने लोगों के लिए नहीं छोड़ा तो आपके लिए क्यों छोड़ूँगा ? आपमें कौन ऐसी बात है ?’’
‘‘मैं तुम्हारा बाप हूँ। अन्दर माता हैं तो बाहर पिता। पिता को रोकने का तुम्हें कोई अधिकार नहीं।’’
‘‘यह अधिकार माता ने ही दिया है। अन्दर नहीं जाने का आदेश सबके लिए है। आपको उससे छूट नहीं मिली है। मुक्ति। नियम सब पर समान रूप से लागू है।’’ गणेश अड़ गए।

‘‘बहुत हठी बालक को। उद्दंड भी।’’ शिव गुर्राए।
‘‘माँ का आदेश-पालक हूँ।’’
‘‘पिता माता से बड़ा होता है।’’ भगवान पशुपति ने तर्क दिया।
‘‘माता की समानता कोई नहीं कर सकता। पिता भी नहीं। मैं आपको किसी मूल्य पर अन्दर जाने की अनुमति नहीं दे सकता।’’
‘‘तो इसका परिणाम भुगतना पड़ेगा।’’ शिव का क्रोध प्रचण्ड हुआ।
‘‘मैं माँ की आज्ञा के पालन में किसी परिणाम की चिन्ता नहीं करता।’’ गणेश अपनी बात पर अड़े थे।
‘‘मृत्यु को भी नहीं ?’’
‘‘नहीं।’’
‘‘तो मुझे पुत्र-हत्या का भागी बनना पड़ेगा। मैं तुम्हें धक्का देकर अन्दर जा सकता था पर आपने आदेश का अनुपालन नहीं करने के कारण मुझे अन्दर जाने के लिए तुम्हारी गर्दन उतारनी पड़ेगी।’’ शिव और कुपित हुए।
‘‘कोई चिन्ता नहीं।’’ गणेश निर्भीक बोले, ‘‘मातृ-आज्ञा-पालन में प्राणों से भी हाथ धोना पड़े तो यह मेरा सौभाग्य ही होगा।’’
‘‘फिर यही हो।’’ कहकर भगवान शिव ने त्रिशूल से गणेश का सिर धड़ से अलग कर दिया।
कैलास पर चारों ओर हाहाकार मच गया। ‘गणेश मारे गए’, ‘गणेश मारे गए, यह बात जंगल की आग की तरह चारों तरफ फैल गई। पार्वती को भी यह सूचना उनके गणों ने दी। शिव अन्दर पहुँच चुके थे। उनके स्वागत-सत्कार की चिन्ता किए बिना गणेश-माता पार्वती द्वार के बाहर भागी।
गणेश को घेरकर कई शिव-गण, आँखों में आँसू भरे, खड़े थे। पार्वती को देखते ही सबने उनके लिए मार्ग दे दिया।
अपने पुत्र को मृत पाकर माँ की ममता सारे बाँध तोड़कर उमड़ पड़ी। उनकी आँखों से अश्रु की नदियाँ प्रवाहित होने लगीं। वह गणेश के मृत शरीर को गोद में रखकर ज़ोर-ज़ोर से विलाप करने लगीं।
उनके विलाप का स्वर अन्दर बैठे सदा शिव के कानों में भी पड़ा। उनका क्रोध काफूर हो गया और अपने कृत्य पर पश्चाताप करते हुए वह बाहर आए। पार्वती को मनाने का प्रयास किया पर गणेश-माता भगवती पार्वती का रुदन जारी रहा। वह भगवान शंकर के लाख समझाने पर भी समझने को प्रस्तुत नहीं थी।
अन्ततः शिव ने हथियार डाल दिए और पार्वती से पूछा, ‘‘तुम कैसे चुप रहोगी ?’’
पार्वती ने कहा, ‘‘मेरे पुत्र के प्राण ले लिये। इसे जीवित कीजिए तभी मैं यहाँ से उठूँगी और अन्न-जल ग्रहण करूँगी।’’
‘‘यह तुम्हारा लड़का बहुत उद्दंड था, इसने मेरी आज्ञा का उल्लंघन किया। ऐसे भी जो मर गया उसे जीवित कैसे किया जा सकता है ?’’

पार्वती ने सिसकते हुए कहा, ‘‘यह केवल मेरा लड़का नहीं आपका भी पुत्र था। यह उद्दंड भी नहीं था, मात्र मेरी आज्ञा का पालन कर रहा था। जहाँ तक मृत को जीवित करने के प्रश्न है, आप देवाधिदेव महादेव के लिए यह कौन-सा कठिन कार्य है? मुझे भुलवाने का प्रयास नहीं कीजिए। आप चाहें तो गणेश क्षण मात्र में जीवित हो सकता है। यदि आप तत्काल जीवित नहीं करते हैं तो फिर जिस त्रिशूल से इसका सिर काटा है उसी से मेरा भी काट दीजिए।
भगवान भोले शंकर विवश हो गए और उन्होंने अपने एक प्रमुख गण को कहा, ‘‘उत्तर दिशा की ओर जाओ और जो सबसे पहला प्राणी मिले उसका सिर काट लाओ।’’
गण जब उत्तर दिशा में बढ़ा तो सबसे पहले उसे एक हाथी का बच्चा दिखाई पड़ा। उसने उसका सिर काट लिया।
सिर को लाकर उसने शिव के हाथों में पकड़ा दिया। भोले शंकर ने इस सिर को गणेश की, सिर-हीन गर्दन से जोड़ दिया और गणेश जीवित हो उठ बैठे।
पार्वती बहुत प्रसन्न हुई और इस विचित्र शिशु को उठाकर उन्होंने अपने कलेजे से लगा लिया। सभी उपस्थित गण प्रसन्नता से भरकर नृत्य करने लगे।
Posted in हिन्दू पतन

सरदार जी बारह बज गए.


सरदार जी बारह बज गए. 
***************************

मित्रों ! कुछ नादान लोग सिक्ख भाइयों को अपनी ओर से शायद व्यंग्य करते हुए
कहते हैं कि सरदार जी बारह बज गए। वे शायद नहीं जानते कि बारह बजे
क्या होता था ? शायद मेरे सभी सिक्ख भाई भी पूरी जानकारी नहीं रखते हैं
| उन सभी लोगों के लिए वास्तविक जानकारी प्रस्तुत है जो इसका मतलब
नहीं जानते हैं ।
इतिहास गवाह है कि सिक्खों ने असहाय और कमजोरों की मदद के लिए
कभी भी अपनी जान की परवाह नहीं की ।
सन 1737 से 1767 के बीच भारत पर नादिरशाह और अहमदशाह अब्दाली जैसे
लूटेरों के अनेकों हमले हुए । मारकाट के बाद वे लोग सोना-चांदी और
कीमती सामान के साथ साथ सुन्दर लड़कियों और स्त्रियों को भी लूटकर साथ
ले जाते और ग़जनी के बाज़ारों में टके टके में बेचकर उनकी इज्जत नीलाम करते थे ।
भारत भर में इन हिन्दू बहन - बेटियों की चीखो पुकार को सुनने वाला कोई न
था | खुद परिवार के लोग भी अपनी जान बचाते भागते फिरते थे | लूटपाट के माल
और स्त्रियों के साथ इन लूटेरों को पंजाब से होकर गुजरना पड़ता था | यहाँ पर
सिक्खों ने उन लूटेरों से स्त्रियों को बचाने की ठानी और संख्या में कम होने के
कारण छोटे छोटे दल बना कर अर्द्ध रात्रि के बारह बजे हमले की व्यूह रचना बनाई
| अपने दल को हमले हेतु तैयार व चौकन्ना करने, अपनी मुहिम
को पूरी कामयाबी से अंजाम देने के लिए सिक्खों ने एक सांकेतिक वाक्य
बनाया था
"बारह बज गए" इस तरह अर्द्ध रात्रि को नींद में गाफिल असावधान लूटेरों के
कब्जे से अधिक से अधिक स्त्रियों को छुड़ाकर वे ससम्मान उनके घर पहुँचा देते थे ।
दुर्भाग्यवश इस वाक्य के सही महत्त्व का ज्ञान लोगों को नहीं है कि किस तरह
से सिक्खों ने हिन्दू बहन, बहू-बेटियों की इज्ज़त बचाई, जब दुर्बलता व
लाचारी घर कर गई थी |
यह वाक्य उस समय मुस्लिम लुटेरों के लिए भय का पर्याय और हिन्दुओं के लिए
वरदान के समान आश्वासन का प्रतीक बन गया था कि अब सिक्ख उनकी बहन -
बेटियों को बचा लेंगे |
सिक्खों के लिए यह वाक्य आज भी वीरता एवं गर्व का प्रतीक है। यदि कोई
व्यक्ति इस वाक्य का प्रयोग करता है तो इसके दो ही अर्थ हो सकते हैं :-
कि या तो वह इतिहास समझकर वीर सिक्खों का आभार व्यक्त कर रहा है
या उसकी बहन- बेटी को आज फिर खतरा है जिसके लिए वह सिक्ख से मदद
चाहता है |
मित्रों ! सिक्खों की बहादुरी की ऐसी अनेकों दास्तानें फ़्रांस के
स्कूली बच्चों को पढ़ाई जाती हैं | आप चाहें तो यूनेस्को (UNESCO)
द्वारा छापी गई किताब "STORIES OF BRAVERY" में छपे यह सभी तथ्य पढ़कर
तसल्ली कर सकते हैं |
"सिक्ख हिन्दूओं की एक श्रेष्ठ जाति है कृपया इन लोगों का आदर व सम्मान करें
|"
यदि आप इससे अभी तक अनभिज्ञ थे तो कृपया ये जानकारी अपने
मित्रों को भी शेयर करें |

सरदार जी बारह बज गए.
***************************

मित्रों ! कुछ नादान लोग सिक्ख भाइयों को अपनी ओर से शायद व्यंग्य करते हुए
कहते हैं कि सरदार जी बारह बज गए। वे शायद नहीं जानते कि बारह बजे
क्या होता था ? शायद मेरे सभी सिक्ख भाई भी पूरी जानकारी नहीं रखते हैं
| उन सभी लोगों के लिए वास्तविक जानकारी प्रस्तुत है जो इसका मतलब
नहीं जानते हैं ।
इतिहास गवाह है कि सिक्खों ने असहाय और कमजोरों की मदद के लिए
कभी भी अपनी जान की परवाह नहीं की ।
सन 1737 से 1767 के बीच भारत पर नादिरशाह और अहमदशाह अब्दाली जैसे
लूटेरों के अनेकों हमले हुए । मारकाट के बाद वे लोग सोना-चांदी और
कीमती सामान के साथ साथ सुन्दर लड़कियों और स्त्रियों को भी लूटकर साथ
ले जाते और ग़जनी के बाज़ारों में टके टके में बेचकर उनकी इज्जत नीलाम करते थे ।
भारत भर में इन हिन्दू बहन – बेटियों की चीखो पुकार को सुनने वाला कोई न
था | खुद परिवार के लोग भी अपनी जान बचाते भागते फिरते थे | लूटपाट के माल
और स्त्रियों के साथ इन लूटेरों को पंजाब से होकर गुजरना पड़ता था | यहाँ पर
सिक्खों ने उन लूटेरों से स्त्रियों को बचाने की ठानी और संख्या में कम होने के
कारण छोटे छोटे दल बना कर अर्द्ध रात्रि के बारह बजे हमले की व्यूह रचना बनाई
| अपने दल को हमले हेतु तैयार व चौकन्ना करने, अपनी मुहिम
को पूरी कामयाबी से अंजाम देने के लिए सिक्खों ने एक सांकेतिक वाक्य
बनाया था
“बारह बज गए” इस तरह अर्द्ध रात्रि को नींद में गाफिल असावधान लूटेरों के
कब्जे से अधिक से अधिक स्त्रियों को छुड़ाकर वे ससम्मान उनके घर पहुँचा देते थे ।
दुर्भाग्यवश इस वाक्य के सही महत्त्व का ज्ञान लोगों को नहीं है कि किस तरह
से सिक्खों ने हिन्दू बहन, बहू-बेटियों की इज्ज़त बचाई, जब दुर्बलता व
लाचारी घर कर गई थी |
यह वाक्य उस समय मुस्लिम लुटेरों के लिए भय का पर्याय और हिन्दुओं के लिए
वरदान के समान आश्वासन का प्रतीक बन गया था कि अब सिक्ख उनकी बहन –
बेटियों को बचा लेंगे |
सिक्खों के लिए यह वाक्य आज भी वीरता एवं गर्व का प्रतीक है। यदि कोई
व्यक्ति इस वाक्य का प्रयोग करता है तो इसके दो ही अर्थ हो सकते हैं :-
कि या तो वह इतिहास समझकर वीर सिक्खों का आभार व्यक्त कर रहा है
या उसकी बहन- बेटी को आज फिर खतरा है जिसके लिए वह सिक्ख से मदद
चाहता है |
मित्रों ! सिक्खों की बहादुरी की ऐसी अनेकों दास्तानें फ़्रांस के
स्कूली बच्चों को पढ़ाई जाती हैं | आप चाहें तो यूनेस्को (UNESCO)
द्वारा छापी गई किताब “STORIES OF BRAVERY” में छपे यह सभी तथ्य पढ़कर
तसल्ली कर सकते हैं |
“सिक्ख हिन्दूओं की एक श्रेष्ठ जाति है कृपया इन लोगों का आदर व सम्मान करें
|”
यदि आप इससे अभी तक अनभिज्ञ थे तो कृपया ये जानकारी अपने
मित्रों को भी शेयर करें |

Posted in भारत गौरव - Mera Bharat Mahan

Shocking science behind Hindu traditions:


Mysteries Explored: 
Shocking science behind Hindu traditions: 
---------------------------------
Indian Customs Vs Scientific Reasons Traditions in Hinduism were considered mainly as superstitions, but with the advent of science, it is becoming evident that these traditions are based on some scientific knowledge and moved from generations to generations as traditions. Though the common people did not know science in it, they were following it very faithfully over the years. This blog is an attempt to bring forward the science involved in these traditions and rituals... 

1. Throwing Coins into a River: The general reasoning given for this act is that it brings Good Luck. However, scientifically speaking, in the ancient times, most of the currency used was made of copper unlike the stainless steel coins of today. Copper is a vital metal very useful to the human body. Throwing coins in the river was one way our fore-fathers ensured we intake sufficient copper as part of the water as rivers were the only source of drinking water. Making it a custom ensured that all of us follow the practice. 

2. Joining Both Palms together to Greet: In Hindu culture, people greet each other by joining their palms - termed as “Namaskar.” The general reason behind this tradition is that greeting by joining both the palms means respect. However, scientifically speaking, joining both hands ensures joining the tips of all the fingers together; which are denoted to the pressure points of eyes, ears, and mind. Pressing them together is said to activate the pressure points which helps us remember that person for a long time. And, no germs since we don’t make any physical contact! 

3. Why do Indian Women wear Toe Ring: Wearing toe rings is not just the significance of married women but there is science behind it. Normally toe rings are worn on the second toe. A particular nerve from the second toe connects the uterus and passes to heart. Wearing toe ring on this finger strengthens the uterus. It will keep it healthy by regulating the blood flow to it and menstrual cycle will be regularized. As Silver is a good conductor, it also absorbs polar energies from the earth and passes it to the body. 

4. Applying Tilak on the Forehead: On the forehead, between the two eyebrows, is a spot that is considered as a major nerve point in human body since ancient times. The Tilak is believed to prevent the loss of "energy", the red 'kumkum' between the eyebrows is said to retain energy in the human body and control the various levels of concentration. While applying kumkum the points on the mid-brow region and Adnya-chakra are automatically pressed. This also facilitates the blood supply to the face muscles. 

5. Why do Temples have Bells: People who are visiting the temple should and will Ring the bell before entering the inner sanctum (Garbhagudi or Garbha Gruha or womb-chamber) where the main idol is placed. According to Agama Sastra, the bell is used to give sound for keeping evil forces away and the ring of the bell is pleasant to God. However, the scientific reason behind bells is that their ring clears our mind and helps us stay sharp and keep our full concentration on devotional purpose. These bells are made in such a way that when they produce a sound it creates a unity in the Left and Right parts of our brains. The moment we ring the bell, it produces a sharp and enduring sound which lasts for minimum of 7 seconds in echo mode. The duration of echo is good enough to activate all the seven healing centres in our body. This results in emptying our brain from all negative thoughts. 

6. Why do we have Navratras: Our living style has drastically changed if we compare it to the society hundreds & thousands of years ago. The traditions which we follow in present are not establishments of today but of the past. Ever thought, why do we have Navratras twice a year unlike other festivals like Deepawali or Holi? Well, both these months are the months of changing seasons and the eating habits of both the seasons are quite different from each other. Navratras give enough time to the body to adjust and prepare itself for to the changing season. These nine days were marked as a period when people would clean their body system by keeping fasts by avoiding excessive salt and sugar, meditate, gain a lot of positive energy, gain a lot of self confidence & increase the self determination power (fasts are a medium to improve our will power and self determination) and finally get ready for the challenges of the changed season. 

7. Why do we worship Tulsi Plant: Hindu religion has bestowed ‘Tulsi’, with the status of mother. Also known as ‘Sacred or Holy Basil’, Tulsi, has been recognized as a religious and spiritual devout in many parts of the world. The vedic sages knew the benefits of Tulsi and that is why they personified it as a Goddess and gave a clear message to the entire community that it needs to be taken care of by the people, literate or illiterate. We try to protect it because it is like Sanjeevani for the mankind. Tulsi has great medicinal properties. It is a remarkable antibiotic. Taking Tulsi everyday in tea or otherwise increases immunity and help the drinker prevent diseases, stabilize his or her health condition, balance his or her body system and most important of all, prolong his or her life. Keeping Tulsi plant at home prevents insects and mosquitoes from entering the house. It is said that snakes do not dare to go near a Tulsi plant. Maybe that is why ancient people would grow lots of Tulsi near their houses. 

8. Why do we worship Peepal Tree: ‘Peepal’ tree is almost useless for an ordinary person, except for its shadow. ‘Peepal’ does not a have a delicious fruit, its wood is not strong enough for any purpose then why should a common villager or person worship it or even care for it? Our ancestors knew that ‘Peepal’ is one of the very few trees (or probably the only tree) which produces oxygen even at night. So in order to save this tree because of its unique property they related it to God/religion. 

9. Start with Spice & End with Sweet: Our ancestors have stressed on the fact that our meals should be started off with something spicy and sweet dishes should be taken towards the end. The significance of this eating practice is that while spicy things activate the digestive juices and acids and ensure that the digestion process goes on smoothly and efficiently, sweets or carbohydrates pulls down the digestive process. Hence, sweets were always recommended to be taken as a last item. 

10. Choti on the Male Head: Sushrut rishi, the foremost surgeon of Ayurveda, describes the master sensitive spot on the head as Adhipati Marma, where there is a nexus of all nerves. The shikha protects this spot. Below, in the brain, occurs the Brahmarandhra, where the sushumnã (nerve) arrives from the lower part of the body. In Yog, Brahmarandhra is the highest, seventh chakra, with the thousand-petalled lotus. It is the centre of wisdom. The knotted shikhã helps boost this centre and conserve its subtle energy known as Ojas. 

11. Applying Mehendi/Henna on the Hand: Besides lending color to the hands, mehndi is a very powerful medicinal herb. Weddings are stressful, and often, the stress causes headaches and fevers. As the wedding day approaches, the excitement mixed with nervous anticipation can take its toll on the bride and groom. Application of mehndi can prevent too much stress because it cools the body and keeps the nerves from becoming tense. This is the reason why mehndi is applied on the hands and feet, which house nerve endings in the body. 

12. Celebration & Cleaning During Diwali: Diwali usually falls in October or November which marks the start of winter season and end of rainy season. Rainy season wasn't a good time for everyone back then; many homes needed repair and renovation after a heavy fall. That is why time before diwali was considered the period during which everyone can indulge in cleaning and beautification of their home. And also take out their winter clothes and pack the summer ones. 

13. Sitting on the Floor & Eating: This tradition is not just about sitting on floor and eating, it is regarding sitting in the “Sukhasan” position and then eating. Sukhasan is the position we normally use for Yoga asanas. Sitting in this position while eating helps in improving digestion as the circulatory system can focus solely upon digestion and not on our legs dangling from a chair or supporting us while we are standing. 

14. Why not to sleep with Your Head towards North: Myth is that it invites ghost or death but science says that it is because human body has its own magnetic field (Also known as hearts magnetic field, because the flow of blood) and Earth is a giant magnet. When we sleep with head towards north, our body's magnetic field become completely asymmetrical to the Earth's Magnetic field. That cause problems related to blood pressure and our heart needs to work harder in order to overcome this asymmetry of Magnetic fields. Apart from this another reason is that Our body have significant amount of iron in our blood. When we sleep in this position, iron from the whole body starts to congregate in brain. This can cause headache, Alzheimer’s Disease, Cognitive Decline, Parkinson disease and brain degeneration. 

15. Surya Namaskar: Hindus have a tradition of paying regards to Sun God early in the morning by their water offering ritual. It was mainly because looking at Sun rays through water or directly at that time of the day is good for eyes and also by waking up to follow this routine, we become prone to a morning lifestyle and mornings are proven to be the most effective part of the day. 

16. Ear Piercing in Children: Piercing the ears has a great importance in Indian ethos. Indian physicians and philosophers believe that piercing the ears helps in the development of intellect, power of thinking and decision making faculties. Talkativeness fritters away life energy. Ear piercing helps in speech-restraint. It helps to reduce impertinent behaviour and the ear-channels become free from disorders. This idea appeals to the Western world as well, and so they are getting their ears pierced to wear fancy earrings as a mark of fashion. 

17. Application of Sindoor or Vermillion: It is interesting to note that that the application of sindoor by married women carries a physiological significance. This is so because Sindoor is prepared by mixing turmeric-lime and the metal mercury. Due to its intrinsic properties, mercury, besides controlling blood pressure also activates sexual drive. This also explains why Sindoor is prohibited for the widows. For best results, Sindoor should be applied right upto the pituitary gland where all our feelings are centered. Mercury is also known for removing stress and strain. 

18. The scientific explanation of ouching Feet(charan sparsh): Usually, the person of whose feet you are touching is either old or pious. When they accept your respect which came from your reduced ego (and is called your shraddha) their hearts emit positive thoughts and energy (which is called their karuna) which reaches you through their hands and toes. In essence, the completed circuit enables flow of energy and increases cosmic energy, switching on a quick connect between two minds and hearts. To an extent, the same is achieved through handshakes and hugs. The nerves that start from our brain spread across all your body. These nerves or wires end in the fingertips of your hand and feet. When you join the fingertips of your hand to those of their opposite feet, a circuit is immediately formed and the energies of two bodies are connected. Your fingers and palms become the ‘receptor’ of energy and the feet of other person become the ‘giver’ of energy. 

19. Why do we Fast: The underlying principle behind fasting is to be found in Ayurveda. This ancient Indian medical system sees the basic cause of many diseases as the accumulation of toxic materials in the digestive system. Regular cleansing of toxic materials keeps one healthy. By fasting, the digestive organs get rest and all body mechanisms are cleansed and corrected. A complete fast is good for heath, and the occasional intake of warm lemon juice during the period of fasting prevents the flatulence. Since the human body, as explained by Ayurveda, is composed of 80% liquid and 20% solid, like the earth, the gravitational force of the moon affects the fluid contents of the body. It causes emotional imbalances in the body, making some people tense, irritable and violent. Fasting acts as antidote, for it lowers the acid content in the body which helps people to retain their sanity. Research suggests there are major health benefits to caloric restriction like reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, immune disorders etc. 

20. Why Idol Worship: Hinduism propagates idol worship more than any other religion. Researchers say that this was initiated for the purpose of increasing concentration during prayers. According to psychiatrists, a man will shape his thoughts as per what he sees. If you have 3 different objects in front of you, your thinking will change according to the object you are viewing. Similarly, in ancient India, idol worship was established so that when people view idols it is easy for them to concentrate to gain spiritual energy and meditate without mental diversion. 

21. Why do Indian Women wear Bangles: Normally the wrist portion is in constant activation on any human. Also the pulse beat in this portion is mostly checked for all sorts of ailments. The Bangles used by women are normally in the wrist part of ones hand and its constant friction increases the blood circulation level. Further more the electricity passing out through outer skin is again reverted to one's own body because of the ring shaped bangles, which has no ends to pass the energy outside but to send it back to the body.
-----------------------------------
Share the knowledge with your family & friends.

Mysteries Explored:
Shocking science behind Hindu traditions:
———————————
Indian Customs Vs Scientific Reasons Traditions in Hinduism were considered mainly as superstitions, but with the advent of science, it is becoming evident that these traditions are based on some scientific knowledge and moved from generations to generations as traditions. Though the common people did not know science in it, they were following it very faithfully over the years. This blog is an attempt to bring forward the science involved in these traditions and rituals…

1. Throwing Coins into a River: The general reasoning given for this act is that it brings Good Luck. However, scientifically speaking, in the ancient times, most of the currency used was made of copper unlike the stainless steel coins of today. Copper is a vital metal very useful to the human body. Throwing coins in the river was one way our fore-fathers ensured we intake sufficient copper as part of the water as rivers were the only source of drinking water. Making it a custom ensured that all of us follow the practice.

2. Joining Both Palms together to Greet: In Hindu culture, people greet each other by joining their palms – termed as “Namaskar.” The general reason behind this tradition is that greeting by joining both the palms means respect. However, scientifically speaking, joining both hands ensures joining the tips of all the fingers together; which are denoted to the pressure points of eyes, ears, and mind. Pressing them together is said to activate the pressure points which helps us remember that person for a long time. And, no germs since we don’t make any physical contact!

3. Why do Indian Women wear Toe Ring: Wearing toe rings is not just the significance of married women but there is science behind it. Normally toe rings are worn on the second toe. A particular nerve from the second toe connects the uterus and passes to heart. Wearing toe ring on this finger strengthens the uterus. It will keep it healthy by regulating the blood flow to it and menstrual cycle will be regularized. As Silver is a good conductor, it also absorbs polar energies from the earth and passes it to the body.

4. Applying Tilak on the Forehead: On the forehead, between the two eyebrows, is a spot that is considered as a major nerve point in human body since ancient times. The Tilak is believed to prevent the loss of “energy”, the red ‘kumkum’ between the eyebrows is said to retain energy in the human body and control the various levels of concentration. While applying kumkum the points on the mid-brow region and Adnya-chakra are automatically pressed. This also facilitates the blood supply to the face muscles.

5. Why do Temples have Bells: People who are visiting the temple should and will Ring the bell before entering the inner sanctum (Garbhagudi or Garbha Gruha or womb-chamber) where the main idol is placed. According to Agama Sastra, the bell is used to give sound for keeping evil forces away and the ring of the bell is pleasant to God. However, the scientific reason behind bells is that their ring clears our mind and helps us stay sharp and keep our full concentration on devotional purpose. These bells are made in such a way that when they produce a sound it creates a unity in the Left and Right parts of our brains. The moment we ring the bell, it produces a sharp and enduring sound which lasts for minimum of 7 seconds in echo mode. The duration of echo is good enough to activate all the seven healing centres in our body. This results in emptying our brain from all negative thoughts.

6. Why do we have Navratras: Our living style has drastically changed if we compare it to the society hundreds & thousands of years ago. The traditions which we follow in present are not establishments of today but of the past. Ever thought, why do we have Navratras twice a year unlike other festivals like Deepawali or Holi? Well, both these months are the months of changing seasons and the eating habits of both the seasons are quite different from each other. Navratras give enough time to the body to adjust and prepare itself for to the changing season. These nine days were marked as a period when people would clean their body system by keeping fasts by avoiding excessive salt and sugar, meditate, gain a lot of positive energy, gain a lot of self confidence & increase the self determination power (fasts are a medium to improve our will power and self determination) and finally get ready for the challenges of the changed season.

7. Why do we worship Tulsi Plant: Hindu religion has bestowed ‘Tulsi’, with the status of mother. Also known as ‘Sacred or Holy Basil’, Tulsi, has been recognized as a religious and spiritual devout in many parts of the world. The vedic sages knew the benefits of Tulsi and that is why they personified it as a Goddess and gave a clear message to the entire community that it needs to be taken care of by the people, literate or illiterate. We try to protect it because it is like Sanjeevani for the mankind. Tulsi has great medicinal properties. It is a remarkable antibiotic. Taking Tulsi everyday in tea or otherwise increases immunity and help the drinker prevent diseases, stabilize his or her health condition, balance his or her body system and most important of all, prolong his or her life. Keeping Tulsi plant at home prevents insects and mosquitoes from entering the house. It is said that snakes do not dare to go near a Tulsi plant. Maybe that is why ancient people would grow lots of Tulsi near their houses.

8. Why do we worship Peepal Tree: ‘Peepal’ tree is almost useless for an ordinary person, except for its shadow. ‘Peepal’ does not a have a delicious fruit, its wood is not strong enough for any purpose then why should a common villager or person worship it or even care for it? Our ancestors knew that ‘Peepal’ is one of the very few trees (or probably the only tree) which produces oxygen even at night. So in order to save this tree because of its unique property they related it to God/religion.

9. Start with Spice & End with Sweet: Our ancestors have stressed on the fact that our meals should be started off with something spicy and sweet dishes should be taken towards the end. The significance of this eating practice is that while spicy things activate the digestive juices and acids and ensure that the digestion process goes on smoothly and efficiently, sweets or carbohydrates pulls down the digestive process. Hence, sweets were always recommended to be taken as a last item.

10. Choti on the Male Head: Sushrut rishi, the foremost surgeon of Ayurveda, describes the master sensitive spot on the head as Adhipati Marma, where there is a nexus of all nerves. The shikha protects this spot. Below, in the brain, occurs the Brahmarandhra, where the sushumnã (nerve) arrives from the lower part of the body. In Yog, Brahmarandhra is the highest, seventh chakra, with the thousand-petalled lotus. It is the centre of wisdom. The knotted shikhã helps boost this centre and conserve its subtle energy known as Ojas.

11. Applying Mehendi/Henna on the Hand: Besides lending color to the hands, mehndi is a very powerful medicinal herb. Weddings are stressful, and often, the stress causes headaches and fevers. As the wedding day approaches, the excitement mixed with nervous anticipation can take its toll on the bride and groom. Application of mehndi can prevent too much stress because it cools the body and keeps the nerves from becoming tense. This is the reason why mehndi is applied on the hands and feet, which house nerve endings in the body.

12. Celebration & Cleaning During Diwali: Diwali usually falls in October or November which marks the start of winter season and end of rainy season. Rainy season wasn’t a good time for everyone back then; many homes needed repair and renovation after a heavy fall. That is why time before diwali was considered the period during which everyone can indulge in cleaning and beautification of their home. And also take out their winter clothes and pack the summer ones.

13. Sitting on the Floor & Eating: This tradition is not just about sitting on floor and eating, it is regarding sitting in the “Sukhasan” position and then eating. Sukhasan is the position we normally use for Yoga asanas. Sitting in this position while eating helps in improving digestion as the circulatory system can focus solely upon digestion and not on our legs dangling from a chair or supporting us while we are standing.

14. Why not to sleep with Your Head towards North: Myth is that it invites ghost or death but science says that it is because human body has its own magnetic field (Also known as hearts magnetic field, because the flow of blood) and Earth is a giant magnet. When we sleep with head towards north, our body’s magnetic field become completely asymmetrical to the Earth’s Magnetic field. That cause problems related to blood pressure and our heart needs to work harder in order to overcome this asymmetry of Magnetic fields. Apart from this another reason is that Our body have significant amount of iron in our blood. When we sleep in this position, iron from the whole body starts to congregate in brain. This can cause headache, Alzheimer’s Disease, Cognitive Decline, Parkinson disease and brain degeneration.

15. Surya Namaskar: Hindus have a tradition of paying regards to Sun God early in the morning by their water offering ritual. It was mainly because looking at Sun rays through water or directly at that time of the day is good for eyes and also by waking up to follow this routine, we become prone to a morning lifestyle and mornings are proven to be the most effective part of the day.

16. Ear Piercing in Children: Piercing the ears has a great importance in Indian ethos. Indian physicians and philosophers believe that piercing the ears helps in the development of intellect, power of thinking and decision making faculties. Talkativeness fritters away life energy. Ear piercing helps in speech-restraint. It helps to reduce impertinent behaviour and the ear-channels become free from disorders. This idea appeals to the Western world as well, and so they are getting their ears pierced to wear fancy earrings as a mark of fashion.

17. Application of Sindoor or Vermillion: It is interesting to note that that the application of sindoor by married women carries a physiological significance. This is so because Sindoor is prepared by mixing turmeric-lime and the metal mercury. Due to its intrinsic properties, mercury, besides controlling blood pressure also activates sexual drive. This also explains why Sindoor is prohibited for the widows. For best results, Sindoor should be applied right upto the pituitary gland where all our feelings are centered. Mercury is also known for removing stress and strain.

18. The scientific explanation of ouching Feet(charan sparsh): Usually, the person of whose feet you are touching is either old or pious. When they accept your respect which came from your reduced ego (and is called your shraddha) their hearts emit positive thoughts and energy (which is called their karuna) which reaches you through their hands and toes. In essence, the completed circuit enables flow of energy and increases cosmic energy, switching on a quick connect between two minds and hearts. To an extent, the same is achieved through handshakes and hugs. The nerves that start from our brain spread across all your body. These nerves or wires end in the fingertips of your hand and feet. When you join the fingertips of your hand to those of their opposite feet, a circuit is immediately formed and the energies of two bodies are connected. Your fingers and palms become the ‘receptor’ of energy and the feet of other person become the ‘giver’ of energy.

19. Why do we Fast: The underlying principle behind fasting is to be found in Ayurveda. This ancient Indian medical system sees the basic cause of many diseases as the accumulation of toxic materials in the digestive system. Regular cleansing of toxic materials keeps one healthy. By fasting, the digestive organs get rest and all body mechanisms are cleansed and corrected. A complete fast is good for heath, and the occasional intake of warm lemon juice during the period of fasting prevents the flatulence. Since the human body, as explained by Ayurveda, is composed of 80% liquid and 20% solid, like the earth, the gravitational force of the moon affects the fluid contents of the body. It causes emotional imbalances in the body, making some people tense, irritable and violent. Fasting acts as antidote, for it lowers the acid content in the body which helps people to retain their sanity. Research suggests there are major health benefits to caloric restriction like reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, immune disorders etc.

20. Why Idol Worship: Hinduism propagates idol worship more than any other religion. Researchers say that this was initiated for the purpose of increasing concentration during prayers. According to psychiatrists, a man will shape his thoughts as per what he sees. If you have 3 different objects in front of you, your thinking will change according to the object you are viewing. Similarly, in ancient India, idol worship was established so that when people view idols it is easy for them to concentrate to gain spiritual energy and meditate without mental diversion.

21. Why do Indian Women wear Bangles: Normally the wrist portion is in constant activation on any human. Also the pulse beat in this portion is mostly checked for all sorts of ailments. The Bangles used by women are normally in the wrist part of ones hand and its constant friction increases the blood circulation level. Further more the electricity passing out through outer skin is again reverted to one’s own body because of the ring shaped bangles, which has no ends to pass the energy outside but to send it back to the body.
———————————–
Share the knowledge with your family & friends.

Posted in भारतीय मंदिर - Bharatiya Mandir

Design for Shree Kalyana Venkateshwara Temple, Venkatapura, Karnataka, India


This is a commission to design a traditionally constructed Hindu temple to be built on a hill at Venkatapura near Nangali in Kolar District, Karnataka, India, in the complex 12th-century style of the Hoysala dynasty. The stone is to be the blue-grey soapstone (chloritic schist) beloved of the Hoysalas. The temple is to be dedicated to Vishnu in the form of Shree Venkateshwara (or Balaji).

While lineages of practitioners from Tamil Nadu and Gujarat continue build traditional temples in their respective traditional styles worldwide, no ‘Hoysala’ temple has been built since the 14th century, hence the need for Hardy’s expertise. The brief is not for a copy of a Hoysala temple, but for a new creation arising from the design principles manifest in the tradition. As well as religious motivation, the client aims to revitalise regional cultural traditions: the temple is to provide a setting for dance performances, with schools of dance and sculpture envisaged at the site. A group of master craftsmen proficient in the Hoysala style of sculpture has been identified to work on the project and to train apprentices.

The client, the Shree Kalyana Venkateshwara Hoysala Art Foundation, signed a contract with Cardiff University in 2009 for Adam Hardy to produce the overall design of the temple and surrounding complex. The design was developed during 2010, with refinements thereafter. The bhumipuja (initiation of the project, orientation of the temple, worship of the goddess earth) took place on 21 March 2010, and the shilanyasa (foundation stone ceremony) in April 2012. Large granite blocks are (2013) being transported to the site and lain to create a level platform for the whole complex. The next stage of the project, production information, is awaited, while the granite platform and site infrastructure are put in place and further funds raised. While the objectives of the project can be fully realised only when the building is complete, the first phase presented here has constituted a coherent piece of research through design, its relevance enhanced by having a real client and real practical, financial and political constraints.

PORTFOLIO OF DRAWINGS


Plan of the complex. The main shrine will be set in a 6,000 m2 walled compound

Plan of the main temple, showing grid and vimana geometry. The garbhagriha (inner sanctum) is about 5.3m square, and the outer circle of the vimana about 17m. Each grid square is approximately 1.07 m, following the Ayadi calculations. No scales are given on the drawings because the final Ayadi calculation is yet to be confirmed.
Side elevation of the main temple (south)

Side elevation of the temple and the open hall (south)


Cross section through enclosed hall

Elevation, detail (II)

Elevation, detail (I)

Posted in भारतीय मंदिर - Bharatiya Mandir

“The Temple and Tank of Walkeschwar at Bombay,” by Edwin Lord Weeks, 1890’s


“The Temple and Tank of Walkeschwar at Bombay,” by Edwin Lord Weeks, 1890’s

Source: http://www.christies.com/LotFinder/search/LotDetail.asp?
(downloaded Oct. 2006)

http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1500_1599/bombay/drawings/drawings.html

“Edwin Lord Weeks (American, 1849-1903). The Temple and Tank of Walkeschwar at Bombay, signed ‘E. L. Weeks’ (lower left); oil on canvas. 65¼ x 45 in. (165.7 x 114.3 cm.)

Lot Notes:  This lofty, exotic and very beautiful canvas was probably executed in Weeks’ Paris studio upon his return from his 1892-93 expedition to India. During that expedition Weeks spent some time in Bombay and the present painting can probably be identified as The Temples and Tank of Walkeschwar at Bombay, which weeks described as ‘an effort to render the rich and deep tone characteristic of a tropical atmosphere at Bombay.’ (Empire of India Exhibition, London, 1895, p. 213). This splendid work is indeed about ‘atmosphere,’ a spectacle of intense light and deep shade. The sun striking the brilliant white tomb is set off by the atmospheric density of the blue and aqua of the sky, creating a palpable suggestion of heat and haze of southern India.

The Walkeschwar Temples are clustered dramatically at the extreme edge of the promontory known as Malabar point. As with most of Weeks’ great paintings, a significant part of the sweeping drama of the picture lies in its meticulously-calculated composition, in this instance a series of vertical layers, oblique to the picture plane, gradually receding from the foreground figures. The sharp diagonal of the foreground steps leads the eye to the partially disrobed female figure, which then leads to the mid-plane of the scene, where the subtle diagonal of the broad steps is countered by the narrower flight of stairs leading past the white-walled domed temple of Ganpati to the upper temple. Also reinforcing this middle-ground is the unifying sweep of the clay tile roofs. Finally, the background plane of the painting is defined by the towering stone gopura, or spire, of the Hindu temple of Rameshwar Shiva thrusting upward into the vastness of the sky.

In fact, the Hindu temple of Rameschwar Shiva was an unusual architectural element for Weeks to paint, as he usually confined himself to architectural backdrops of the Islamic srtuctures of north India. In the context of this southern painting, however, the Hindu gopura, makes complete sense, and its inclusion in the composition demonstrates Weeks’ amazing deftness in constructing wholly accurate complex perspective views.

Opposing the complexity and precision of the architecture and figures is the cool still water of the pool, or tank, an excavated regular pool for ceremonial ablutions, often seen in India as adjuncts to temples and mosques. The handling of the water, like the ‘mosaic’ handling of the sky, also seen in other works of this period, betrays Weeks’ interested exposure to impressionism. Although unusual in any form for an “academic” painter, Weeks’ impressionist brushwork seems to have been less an intellectual exercise than a means of more suggestively rendering his subjects…. The Temple and Tanks of Walkeschwar at Bombay is an important painting from Weeks’ mature period, in which a depiction of everyday life is ennobled in an academic vision of the greatest skill.

We are grateful to Dr. Ellen K. Morris for providing the catalogue entry for this work, which will be included in her forthcoming Weeks catalogue raisonné.”

Posted in Uncategorized

100 யானைகளை மலையிலிருந்து உருட்டிவிட்ட ஹூண மன்னன்!


Huns

Posted in भारत गौरव - Mera Bharat Mahan

The two Sanskrit speaking Vedic villages in “modern” India


The two Sanskrit speaking Vedic villages in “modern” India

Read more @ http://www.hindujagruti.org/news/20194_the-two-sanskrit-speaking-vedic-villages-in-modern-india.html

Like page : Hindu Adhiveshan

The two Sanskrit speaking Vedic villages in “modern” India

Read more @ http://www.hindujagruti.org/…/20194_the-two-sanskrit-speaki…

Like page : Hindu Adhiveshan

Posted in भारतीय शिक्षा पद्धति

हिंदी में कैसे छापें (टाइप करें) …………???


हिंदी में कैसे छापें (टाइप करें) …………???

हिंदी में कैसे छापें (टाइप करें) …………???  पढने के बाद वीडियो देखना न भूलें …… !

देखा गया है कई मित्रअंग्रेजी अक्षरों में हिंदी में टिपण्णी (comment) करते हैं। अगर आप के पी.सी. में या लेपटाप में हिंदी टाइप करना चाहते हैं तोनीचे दिए गई कड़ी (link) द्वारा गूगलआई.एम.इ. का अधोभारण करें (download) करें।उसे दिए गएनिर्देशानुसार स्थापित (Install) करें।

कड़ी पे माउस रख कर दाहिनाबटन दबाएँ. फिर आप को जो भाषा (हिंदी, या गुजराती, या अन्य) भाषा का अधोभारण करना हो उस पर खरे का निशान लगाएं (tick). अब download लिखा है उस पर दाहिना बटन दबाएँ। जब अधोभारण हो जाए तब उसे स्थापित कर लें. अबआप के द्र्श्य्पटल (मोनिटर) पर बाएँ भाषा दंड (language bar) नीचे की और आ जाएगा. आप जितनी चाहे उतनी भाषा का अधोभारण कर सकते हैं।

गूगल ने यह टूल एक साथ 14 भाषाओं (अरबी, फ़ारसी (पर्सियन), ग्रीक, बंगाली, गुजराती, हिन्दी, कन्नड़, मलयालम, मराठी, नेपाली, पंजाबी, तमिल, तेलगू और ऊर्दू) में छपाई (type) करने के लिए ज़ारीकिया है।

उदाहरण के तौर पर हिंदीलीजिए. (अंग्रेजी शब्दों के लिए क्षमा करें)

क्या खा़स है इस टूल में-

1) इंटरनेट कनैक्शन की कोईआवश्यकता नहीं- आप एक बार इंस्टॉल कर लें, फिर आपके पासइंटरनेट कनैक्शन हो या न हो, कोई फ़र्क़ नहींपड़ता।

2) आसान कीबोर्ड- गूगल के इसटूल से लोगों की यह भी शिकायत रहती थीं कि वे हिन्दी के चालू शब्द तो टाइप कर लेतेथे, लेकिन कई संस्कृतनिष्ठ शब्द नहीं टाइप हो पाते थे। जैसे बहुत कोशिशों के बादभी ‘हृदय’ लिखना मुश्किल होता था, ‘ह्रदय’ से ही काम चलाना पड़ता था। जो लोग इस टूल का इस्तेमाल करते हैं, उन्हें इस टूल की सीमाओं का पता है। अब नये IME में गूगल ने एक कीबोर्ड दिया है, जिसकी मदद से आपदुर्लभ और जटिल शब्द भी टाइप कर सकते हैं।

3) शब्दों की पूर्ति- इसमेंशब्दकोश आधारित शब्द पूर्ति पद्धति सक्रिय है। इसकी मदद से टाइप करने वाले को यहआसानी होती है कि जैसे ही वह किसी शब्द के 2-3 अक्षर टाइप करता है, गूगल का यह सिस्टम इससे बन सकने वाले शब्दों का सुझाव देने लगता है। जैसे- ‘हिन्दी’ लिखना है, hi टाइप करते ही ‘हिन्दी’ का विकल्प प्रदर्शित हो जाता है।

4) खोज का विकल्प- इस टूल केसाथ हर शब्द, शब्द-युग्म और सम्भावितशब्द के नीचे एक तीरनुमा आकृति बनी है, जिसपर क्लिक करने सेSearch (खोज) का विकल्प आता है, उसपर क्लिक करते हीगूगल उस शब्द से संबंधित खोज परिणाम प्रदर्शित करने लगता है। टाइपिंग पट्टी केऊपरी दायें कोने में भी गूगल का ऑइकॉन है, जिसपर क्लिक करकेगूगल-सर्च किया जा सकता है। इस विकल्प के जुड़े रहने से देवनागरी-सर्च को भीबढ़ावा मिलेगा।

5) वैयक्तिक चयन- गूगल का यहटूल आप द्वारा किये गये संशोधनों को भी अपने ध्यान में रखता है और अगली बार आपकेरोमन अक्षरयुग्मों से उन्हीं शब्दों का सुझाव देता है जो आप द्वारा वांछित है।जैसे आप ‘kam’ से ‘काम’ की जगह ‘कम’ लिखना चाहते हैं तो अगली बार से यह आपकी पसंद का ख्याल रखता है।

6) सुखद अनुकूलन- गूगल इस टूलमें फॉन्ट चयन, साइच चयन का विकल्प भीप्रदान करता है, जिससे आप अपनी पसंद केस्टाइल में टाइपिंग कर सकें।

अब इतना जान लेने के बाद आपयह ज़रूर जानना चाहेंगे कि इसे आप अपने सिस्टम में संस्थापित (इंस्टॉल) कैसे करें।

1) यहाँ क्लिक करके इसकासेट-अप डाउनलोड करें (आप चाहें तो इस टूल के अधिकारिक पृष्ठ पर जाकर भी सेट-अपडाउनलोड कर सकते है)।

2) एक ही क्लाइंट मशीन पर एकसे अधिक भाषाओं का IME सेट-अप चलाया जासकता है।

3) यह टूल Windows 7/Vista/XP32-bit ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम के साथ काम करता है।

4) जब इंस्टॉलर डाउनलोड होजाये तो उसे चलायें। यह कुछ डाउनलोड करने की शुरूआत करेगा।

5) नियम व शर्तों को स्वीकारकरें-

6) गूगल इनपुट सेट-अप इंस्टॉलहो रहा है-

7) फिनिश बटन पर क्लिक करकेइंस्टॉलेशन विज़ार्ड से बाहर आयें-

विन्यास (कन्फिगरेशन)

आप यदि इस टूल को चलानाचाहते हैं तो पहले तो आपके सिस्टम में यूनिकोड का सपोर्ट इंस्टॉल होना चाहिए। इसकेलिए आप Control Panel ->Regional and Language Options -> Languages tab -> Install files forcomplex scripts and right to left languages और Install files forEast Asian languages दोनों को चेक्ड करकेइंस्टॉलर सीडी द्वारा इंस्टॉल करें। इसके बाद आपके टूलबार में भाषा का विकल्पदिखने लगेगा। भाषा के इस विकल्प को लैंग्वेज बार भी कहते हैं।

यदि लैंग्वेज-बार न दिखेतो।

डेस्कटॉप पर राइट क्लिककरें (दायाँ क्लिक करें) और टूलबार में जायें और निम्नलिखित चित्र की भाँतिलैंग्वेज़ बार इनेबल करें।

यदि फिर भी लैंग्वेज बारनहीं दिखता तो निम्नलिखित तरीके से लैंग्वेज बार दिखायें-

Windows 7/Vista

Control Panel -> Regional and Language Options -> Keyboard andLanguages tab

Text services and input languages dialog खोलने के लिए Change keyboards पर क्लिक करें।

Language Bar tab पर क्लिक करें

लैंग्वेज़ बार वर्ग से Docked in thetaskbar रेडियो बटन को इनेबल(सक्रिय) करें।

उपर्युक्त सभी सेटिंग कोइप्लाई करें और देखने की कोशिश करें कि आपके टूलबार में लैंग्वेज बार देखें।

Windows XP

जायें-Control Panel ->Regional and Language Options -> Languages tab -> Text services and inputlanguages (Details) -> Advanced Tab

यह सुनिश्चित कीजिए कि Systemconfiguration विकल्प के अंतर्गत Turn off advancedtext services चेक्ड नहीं है।

जायें- Control Panel ->Regional and Language Options -> Languages tab -> Text services and inputlanguages (Details) -> Settings Tab

Language Bar पर क्लिक करें

Show the Language bar on the desktop चुनें और OK पर क्लिक करें।

IME का Shortcut कैसे सक्रिय करें-

हालाँकि आप लैंग्वेज बार सेअंग्रेजी और हिन्दी को बारी-बारी से चुनकर दोनों भाषाओं के बीच टॉगल कर सकते हैं, लेकिन यदि आप अपने कीबर्ड से कोई शार्टकर्ट का इस्तेमाल करके किसी भीअनुप्रयोग में इसे चलाना चाहते हैं तो निम्नलिखित तरीके से कर सकते हैं-

Windows 7/Vista

Control Panel -> Regional and Language Options -> Keyboard andLanguages tab

Text services and input languages dialog खोलने के लिए Change keyboards… बटन पर क्लिक करें।

Advanced Key Settings tab खोजें और इसपर क्लिककरें।

यदि Google Input उस लिस्ट में नहीं है तो Add पर क्लिक करें। Add Input languagedialog box में भाषा विकल्प में हिन्दीऔर कीबोर्ड में Google Input चुनें।

Hot keys for input languages वर्ग में – Google Input पर जायें।

Change Key Sequence दबायें

Enable Key Sequence चुनें

Left ALT + SHIFT + Key 1 जैसा कोई विकल्पचुनें।

ऊपर्युक्त सभी सेटिंग कोएप्लाई करें।

अब नोटपैड, वर्डपैड जैसे किसी अनुप्रयोग को खोलकर यह चेक करें कि शॉर्टकर्ट काम कर रहा हैया नहीं। Left ALT + SHIFT +Key 1 दबायें और देखें कि हिन्दी में लिख पारहे हैं या नहीं।

Windows XP

Control Panel -> Regional and Language Options -> Languages tab-> Text services and input languages (Details) -> Settings Tab

यदि या Google InstalledServices बॉक्स में भाषा के रूप मेंनहीं जुड़ा है, तो Add पर क्लिक करके Add Input language dialog box खोलें Input language में जोड़े और Keyboard layout/IMEमें Google Input चुनें। OK पर क्लिक करें।

Key Settings पर क्लिक करें।

Hot keys for input languages में Switch to -GoogleInput चुनें

Change Key Sequence पर क्लिक करें

Enable Key Sequence चुनें

Left ALT + SHIFT + Key 1 जैसा कोई विकल्पचुनें।

ऊपर्युक्त सभी सेटिंग कोएप्लाई करें।

अब नोटपैड, वर्डपैड जैसे किसी अनुप्रयोग को खोलकर यह चेक करें कि शॉर्टकर्ट काम कर रहा हैया नहीं। Left ALT + SHIFT +Key 1 दबायें और देखें कि हिन्दी में लिख पारहे हैं या नहीं।

फीचर-

मैं इसके बहुत से फीचरों केबारे में पहले ही बता चुका हूँ। एक बार चित्र के मध्यम से देखते हैं-

स्टेटस विंडो-

जब आप लैंग्वेज बार सक्रियकर लेंगे और गूगल का विकल्प जोड़ लेंगे तो IME सक्रिय करने काशॉर्टकर्ट चलाते ही आपके स्क्रीन पर इस टूल का स्टेटस दिखाई देगा।

संपादन खिड़की-

स्क्रीन पर गूगल IME का विंडो दिखते ही आप नोटपैड सरीखे किसी अनुप्रयोग को खोलें और टाइप करना शुरूकरें। जब आप ‘googl’ टाइप करेंगे तो निम्नलिखिततरीके से विकल्प दिखेंगे-

नेविगेशन और चयन-

बाय-डिफाल्ट सबसे बायाँविकल्प आपका सक्रिय चयन है। आप अपना चयना BOTTOM-ARROW या TAB बटन द्वारा बदल सकते हैं। विकल्पों पर आगे बढ़ जाने के बाद पीछे केविकल्प/विकल्पों पर लौटने के लिए UP-ARROW या SHIFT+TAB बटन का इस्तेमाल कर सकते हैं। यह मुश्किल लगे तो माउस राजा तो है हीं। Enter बटन को दबाकर वांछित शब्द इमसर्ट कर सकते हैं। SPACE या कोई PUNCTUATION CHARACTER (विराह चिह्न) आदिबटनों का प्रयोग करके भी शब्द को पूरा टाइप किया जा सकता है। CTRL+ के शॉर्टकर्ट से भी आप प्रदर्शित विकल्पों में से वांछित विकल्प चुन सकते हैं।जैसे दूसरा विकल्प चुनने के लिए CTRL+2 –

शब्द-पूर्ति-

जब आप इस संपादित्र (एडीटर)के माध्यम से कोई शब्द टाइप करते हैं तो यह सारे संभावित शब्द युग्मों को काले औरनीले रंगों में दिखाता है। काले रंग के बैकग्राउंड में प्रदर्शित हो रहे शब्द आपकेद्वारा टंकित रोमन अक्षरों से सम्भावित शब्द है और नीले रंग के बैकग्राउंड में प्रदर्शितहोने वाले शब्द शब्दकोश के शब्द हैं।

पेजिंग-

हमने जिस सेटिंग पर चर्चाकी, उसमें 1 बार में 5 शब्द प्रदर्शित होते हैं। सेटिंग से आप इसे 6 तक बढ़ा सकते हैं। लेकिन मान लें कि इस टूल के पास आप द्वारा टंकितअक्षरयुग्मों के लिए 5 या 6 से अधिक सुझाव हैं तो यह 1 से अधिक पृष्ठोंमें सभी शब्द प्रदर्शित करेगा। आप देखेंगे कि ऊपर और नीचे जाने का Arrow नेविगेशन चमकने लगेगा। आप PAGEUP, PAGEDOWN बटन से भी इनविकल्पों के बीच दौड़ सकते हैं।

खोज-

किसी भी समय जब आप इससंपादित्र में टाइप कर रहे हों, दायें कोने में गूगलके ऑइकॉन पर क्लिक करके उस शब्द (हाइलाइटेड) से संबंधित गूगल खोज कर सकते हैं।गैरसक्रिय विकल्पों पर बने डाउनएरो(DownArrow) के निशान पर क्लिक करके उस विशेष विकल्प से संबंधित गूगल खोज कर सकते हैं।

प्रयोक्ता कैशे (USER CACHE)-

कम्प्यूटर के लिए कैशे एकअस्थाई स्मृति होती है जो कभी पहले इस्तेमाल किये गये डाटा के रूप में संग्रहणितहोती है। कई दफ़ा स्मृति आधारित बहुत से कम्प्यूटर अनुप्रयोग अपनी इसी स्मृति कीमदद से बहुत तेज़ काम करते हैं, तेज़ परिणाम देतेहैं।

गूगल का यह आईएमई टूल भीप्रयोक्ता द्वारा सुझाये गये विकल्पों को अपने कैशे मेमोरी में संचित करके रखता हैऔर अगली दफ़ा आपको वांछित परिणाम देता है। उदाहरण के लिए- मान लें कि आपने इससंपादित्र की मदद से रोमन में ‘program’ टाइप किया। यह टूलपहले आउटपुट के रूप में ‘प्रोग्राम’ दिखाया, लेकिन आपको दूसरा विकल्प ‘प्रोगराम’ वांछित था। आपने उसे एरोबटन या माउस द्वारा चुना।

जब आप अगली बार ”program’ टाइप करेंगे तो गूगल का यह IME टूल आपके सुझाव औरआपकी चाहत को ध्यान में रखेगा और पहले विकल्प के रूप ‘प्रोग्रराम’ दिखायेगा। नीचे दिखाये गयेचित्र की तरह-

दो भाषाओं को आपस मेंबदलना-

आप इस टूल की मदद से पहलेकी तरह अंग्रेज़ी और हिन्दी भाषा दोनों के शब्द अपने एक ही कीबोर्ड से लिख सकतेहैं। जब आईएमई सक्रिय हो, आप F12 या Ctrl+G की मदद से रोमन और देवनागरी को आपस में बदल सकते हैं।

आप चाहें तो आपके कम्प्यूटरस्क्रीन पर बने ऑइकॉन की मदद से ‘अ’ पर क्लिक करके ‘A’ और ‘A’ पर क्लिक करके ‘अ’ कर सकते हैं। ‘अ’ इस बात का सूचक है कि टाइपिंग-आउटपुट देवनागरी में होगा और ‘A’ इस बात का सूचक है कि टाइपिंग-आउटपुट रोमन में होगा।

कीबोर्ड-

गूगल ने इस बार एकइनस्क्रिप्ट कीबोर्ड का विकल्प भी दिया है, जिसमें हिन्दी केसभी स्वर, व्यंजन, विराम चिह्न इत्यादि एकक्रम में सजे हुए हैं। इस कीबोर्ड की मदद से आप बहुत से जटिल और दुर्लभ शब्द याअपनी मर्ज़ी के सार्थक-निरर्थक शब्द अपने आलेख में जोड़ सकते हैं। जैसे यदि आपकीबोर्ड की मदद से ‘यक्ष’ लिखना चाहें तो कीबोर्ड से ‘य’ और ‘क्ष’ का बटन दबायें आपका काम हो जायेगा।

यह कीबोर्ड स्टेटस विंडों(कम्प्यूटर स्क्रीन पर दिखने वाला IME का ऑइकॉन) पर बनेकीबोर्ड के ऑइकॉन पर क्लिक करके खोला जा सकता है या कीबोर्ड शॉर्टकर्ट Ctrl+K द्वारा खोला जा सकता है। माउस द्वारा वांछित अक्षर का चुनाव कर सकते हैं। माउससे स्टेटस विंडो पर बने कीबोर्ड के ऑइकॉन पर दुबारा क्लिक करके, या Ctrl+K दबाकर या Esc का बटन दबाकर इसे बंद कियाजा सकता है।

गूगल ने पहली बार ZWJ और ZWNJ का विकल्प भी इस कीबोर्ड में दिया है। मैं यूनिप्रशिक्षण के दौरान कई बार इनदोनों के महत्व का उल्लेख कर चुका हूँ। आज संक्षेप में दुबारा लिखता हूँ-

ZWJ- Zero Width Joiner (शून्य चौड़ाई वालायोजक)- मतलब दो व्यंजनों को जोड़ने वाला ऐसा योजक जिसकी चौड़ाई शून्य हो। जैसे जबहम सामान्य तरीके से एक आधा व्यंजन और उसके बाद पूरा व्यंजन लिखते हैं तो दोनोंमिलकर कई बार बहुत अजीब सा (अवांछित) रूप धर लेते हैं। जैसे जबकि हम ‘रक्‍त’ लिखना चाहते हैं, लेकिन इसका रूप ‘रक्त’ जैसा हो जाता है। असल में हम ‘रक्‍त’ इसी ZWJ की मदद से लिखते हैं। मतलब यह जोड़ भी देता है और कोई स्थान भी नहीं घेरता।

रक्त= र+क्+त

रक्‍त=र+क्+ZWJ+त

या मान लें आपको को ‘क्‍’, ‘ख्‍’, ‘ग्‍’…..’च्‍’, ‘छ्‍’…..’त्‍’, ‘थ्‍’ इत्यादि लिखना है तो ZWJ का इस्तेमाल करनाहोगा।

जैसे ग्‍= ग्+ZWJ

ZWNJ- Zero Width Non Joiner (शून्य चौड़ाई वालाअ-योजक)- मतलब दो व्यंजनों को पारस्परिक अलग-अलग दिखाने का उपाय जिससे हम व्यंजनके पूर्ण शुद्ध रूप को निरूपित कर सकते हैं, भले ही उसके बाद कोईव्यंजन ही आये। अमूमन हिन्दी में किसी पूर्ण शुद्ध व्यंजन के बाद कोई व्यंजनजुड़ते ही उसके आकार में कुछ विकार आ जाता है, लेकिन कई बार हम उसेअलग करके दिखाना चाहते हैं, जिसके लिए ZWNJ का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है। जैसे मान लें कि ‘रक्त’ आप ना तो ‘रक्त’ की तरह और ना ही ‘रक्‍त’ की तरह दिखाना चाहते हैं बल्कि आप ‘रक्‌त’ की तरह दिखाना चाहते हैं तब आप ZWNJ का इस्तेमाल करेंगे।

रक्‌त= र+क्+ZWNJ+त

अनुकूलन-

इस टूल में अपने हिसाब सेअनुकूलन करने का विकल्प भी मौज़ूद है। आप स्टेट्स विंडों में सेटिंग के ऑइकॉन परक्लिक करके ‘Suggestion Font’ से यूनिकोड का फॉन्ट, साइज़ और बोल्ड, इटैलिक, अंडरलाइंड इत्यादि जैसे कस्टोमाइजेशन कर सकते हैं। आप मंगल और Arial Unicode MS के अलावा भी जैसे गार्गी, जयपुर यूनिकोड, जनहिन्दी इत्यादि जैसे यूनिकोड फॉन्ट (यदि आपने इसे अपने सिस्टम में अलग सेडाल रखा है तो) जैसा कोई और फॉन्ट चुन सकते हैं।

अंग्रेज़ी के शब्दों के लिएफॉन्ट कस्टोमाइजेशन कर सकते हैं। पेज़ साइज़ बदल सकते हैं (एक पेज़ में कितनेविकल्प दिखाने हैं)।

जिस प्रयोक्ता कैशे काउल्लेख मैंने ऊपर किया आप चाहें तो उसे निष्क्रिय भी कर सकते हैं, क्योंकि कई बार आप बहुत अजीब या कम प्रयोग में आने वाला शब्द टाइप करते हैं औरआप नहीं चाहते कि चालू शब्द पहले नं॰ पर आना बंद हो।

http://www.google.co.in/inputtools/windows/

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GndGMEVEDLQ

Posted in हिन्दू पतन

हिन्दुओं पर औरंगजेब द्वारा किये गए अत्याचार के कुछ अंश


हिन्दुओं पर औरंगजेब द्वारा किये गए अत्याचार के कुछ अंश
————————————————————
• २ अप्रैल १६७९ को औरंगजेब द्वारा हिन्दुओं पर जजिया कर लगाया गया जिसका हिन्दुओं ने दिल्ली में बड़े पैमाने पर शांतिपूर्वक विरोध किया परन्तु उसे बेरहमी से कुचल दिया गया।

• इसके साथ-साथ मुसलमानों को करों में छूट दे दी गयी जिससे हिन्दू अपनी निर्धनता और कर न चूका पाने की दशा में इस्लाम ग्रहण कर ले।

• १६ अप्रैल १६६७ को औरंगजेब ने दिवाली के अवसर पर आतिशबाजी चलाने से और त्यौहार बनाने से मना कर दिया गया।

• इसके बाद सभी सरकारी नौकरियों से हिन्दू क्रमचारियों को निकाल कर उनके स्थान पर मुस्लिम क्रमचारियों की भरती का फरमान भी जारी कर दिया गया।

• हिन्दुओं को शीतला माता, पीर प्रभु आदि के मेलों में इकठ्ठा न होने का हुकुम दिया गया।

• हिन्दुओं को पालकी, हाथी, घोड़े की सवारी की मनाई कर दी गयी।

• कोई हिन्दू अगर इस्लाम ग्रहण करता तो उसे कानूनगो बनाया जाता और हिन्दू पुरुष को इस्लाम ग्रहण करनेपर ४ रुपये और हिन्दू स्त्री को २ रुपये मुसलमान बनने के लिए दिए जाते थे।

ऐसे न जाने कितने अत्याचार औरंगजेब ने हिन्दू जनता पर किये और आज उसी द्वारा जबरन मुस्लिम बनाये गए लोगों के वंशज उसका गुण गान करते नहीं थकते हैं।क्या यह दोगलापन नहीं है

हिन्दुओं पर औरंगजेब द्वारा किये गए अत्याचार के कुछ अंश
------------------------------------------------------------
•   २ अप्रैल १६७९ को औरंगजेब द्वारा हिन्दुओं पर जजिया कर लगाया गया जिसका हिन्दुओं ने दिल्ली में बड़े पैमाने पर शांतिपूर्वक विरोध किया परन्तु उसे बेरहमी से कुचल दिया गया। 

•   इसके साथ-साथ मुसलमानों को करों में छूट दे दी गयी जिससे हिन्दू अपनी निर्धनता और कर न चूका पाने की दशा में इस्लाम ग्रहण कर ले। 

•   १६ अप्रैल १६६७ को औरंगजेब ने दिवाली के अवसर पर आतिशबाजी चलाने से  और त्यौहार बनाने से मना कर दिया गया। 

•   इसके बाद सभी सरकारी नौकरियों से हिन्दू क्रमचारियों को निकाल कर उनके स्थान पर मुस्लिम क्रमचारियों की भरती का फरमान भी जारी कर दिया गया। 

•   हिन्दुओं को शीतला माता, पीर प्रभु आदि के मेलों में इकठ्ठा न होने का हुकुम दिया गया।

•   हिन्दुओं को पालकी, हाथी, घोड़े की सवारी की मनाई कर दी गयी। 

•   कोई हिन्दू अगर इस्लाम ग्रहण करता तो उसे कानूनगो बनाया जाता और हिन्दू पुरुष को इस्लाम ग्रहण करनेपर ४ रुपये और हिन्दू स्त्री को २ रुपये मुसलमान बनने के लिए दिए जाते थे।

ऐसे न जाने कितने अत्याचार औरंगजेब ने हिन्दू जनता पर किये और आज उसी द्वारा जबरन मुस्लिम बनाये गए लोगों के वंशज उसका गुण गान करते नहीं थकते हैं।क्या यह दोगलापन नहीं है