Posted in गौ माता - Gau maata

गौ वध होने से पहले इस पृथ्वी मे केवल तीन


गौ वध होने से पहले इस पृथ्वी मे केवल तीन
ही रोग थे ।इच्छा , बुढापा और मृत्यु ।
पाखण्डियों के बहकावे मे आकर , स्वार्थ
प्रेरित हो कुछ लोगों द्वारा तामसी यज्ञों मे
लाखों गौओं का वध होने से पाप व हाहाकार इतना बढ गया ,कि पृथ्वी मे रोगों की संख्या 98 हो गई ।यवन , हप्सी , मंगोल व म्लेच्छ आदि के द्वारा अभी भी सामूहिक रूप से गो वध जारी ही है ।

जिससे रोगों की संख्या अब 266 तक पहुँच
चुकी है ।अगर ऐसे ही गौ हत्या जारी रही ,
तो आने वाले कल मे पूरी पृथ्वी तरह तरह के
रोंगों से घिर जाएगी ।उस समय के लोग
भूलकर भी नरक की अलग से कल्पना नही कर पाएँगे ।पोंगा पण्डितों की तरह गाय की पूँछ पकडने व पूजा करने की जरूरत नहीं है ।आज के प्रदूषित वायुमण्डल को देखते हुए,
वैज्ञानिक दृष्टिकोण से भी उत्तम नस्ल की शुद्ध देशी गायों का संवर्धन व विकास जरूरी है ।क्योंकि ऐसी शुद्ध नस्ल की देशी गायों के पंचगव्य से पृथ्वी के वायुमण्डल की वायु व शरीर का शोधन होता है ।इतना ही नही पृथ्वी के वायुमण्डल के बाहर भी इसमे जीवन सुरक्षा हेतु पर्याप्त गुण मौजूद हैं ।

निवेदक आपका मित्र
गोवत्स राधेश्याम रावोरिया
ज्वाइन us www.gokranti.com
Www.gokranti.in

गौ वध होने से पहले इस पृथ्वी मे केवल तीन
ही रोग थे ।इच्छा , बुढापा और मृत्यु ।
पाखण्डियों के बहकावे मे आकर , स्वार्थ
प्रेरित हो कुछ लोगों द्वारा तामसी यज्ञों मे
लाखों गौओं का वध होने से पाप व हाहाकार इतना बढ गया ,कि पृथ्वी मे रोगों की संख्या 98 हो गई ।यवन , हप्सी , मंगोल व म्लेच्छ आदि के द्वारा अभी भी सामूहिक रूप से गो वध जारी ही है ।

जिससे रोगों की संख्या अब 266 तक पहुँच
चुकी है ।अगर ऐसे ही गौ हत्या जारी रही ,
तो आने वाले कल मे पूरी पृथ्वी तरह तरह के
रोंगों से घिर जाएगी ।उस समय के लोग
भूलकर भी नरक की अलग से कल्पना नही कर पाएँगे ।पोंगा पण्डितों की तरह गाय की पूँछ पकडने व पूजा करने की जरूरत नहीं है ।आज के प्रदूषित वायुमण्डल को देखते हुए,
वैज्ञानिक दृष्टिकोण से भी उत्तम नस्ल की शुद्ध देशी गायों का संवर्धन व विकास जरूरी है ।क्योंकि ऐसी शुद्ध नस्ल की देशी गायों के पंचगव्य से पृथ्वी के वायुमण्डल की वायु व शरीर का शोधन होता है ।इतना ही नही पृथ्वी के वायुमण्डल के बाहर भी इसमे जीवन सुरक्षा हेतु पर्याप्त गुण मौजूद हैं ।

निवेदक आपका मित्र 
गोवत्स राधेश्याम रावोरिया
ज्वाइन us www.gokranti.com
Www.gokranti.in
Posted in Uncategorized

अण्डे का सच और रहस्य जिसे पढ़ कर सारा भारत देश अंडा!


‪#‎रमा_गोस्वामी‬
अण्डे का सच और रहस्य जिसे पढ़ कर सारा भारत देश अंडा!
खाना छोड देगा
यह देख कर अत्यंत खेद और आश्चर्य होता है
की अंडा शाकाहार का पर्याय बन चुका है,ब्राह्मणों से
लेकर जैनियों तक सभी ने खुल्लमखुल्ला अंडा खाना शुरू
कर दिया है …
मादा स्तनपाईयों (बन्दर बिल्ली गाय मनुष्य) में एक निश्चित
समय के बाद अंडोत्सर्जन एक चक्र के रूप में होता है
उदारहरणतः मनुष्यों में यह महीने में एक बार,.. चार दिन
तक होता है जिसे माहवारी या मासिक धर्म कहते
है ..उन दिनों में स्त्रियों को पूजा पाठ चूल्हा रसोईघर आदि से दूर
रखा जाता है ..यहाँ तक की स्नान से पहले
किसी को छूना भी वर्जित है कई
परिवारों में …शास्त्रों में भी इन नियमों का वर्णन है
इस स्राव के दौरान स्त्रियोंमें मादा हार्मोन (estrogen)
की अत्यधिक मात्रा उत्सर्जित होती है और
सारे शारीर से यह निकलता रहता है ..,
अब आते है मुर्गी के अण्डे की ओर
१) पक्षियों (मुर्गियों) में भी अंडोत्सर्जन एक चक्र के रूप
में होता है अंतर केवल इतना है की वह तरल रूप में
ना हो कर ठोस (अण्डे) के रूप में बाहर आता है ,
२) सीधे तौर पर कहा जाए
तो अंडा मुर्गी की माहवारी या मासिक
धर्म है और मादा हार्मोन (estrogen) से भरपूर है और बहुत
ही हानिकारक है
३) ज्यादा पैसे कमाने के लिए आधुनिक तकनीक का प्रयोग
कर आजकल मुर्गियोंको भारत में निषेधित ड्रग ओक्सिटोसिन(oxyt
ocin) का इंजेक्शन लगाया जाता है जिससे के मुर्गियाँ लगातार अनिषेचित
(unfertilized) अण्डे देती है
४) इन भ्रूणों (अन्डो) को खाने से पुरुषों में (estrogen) हार्मोन के
बढ़ने के कारण कई रोग उत्पन्न हो रहे है जैसे के
वीर्य में शुक्राणुओ
की कमी (oligozoospermi a,
azoospermia) , नपुंसकता और
स्तनों का उगना (gynacomastia), हार्मोन असंतुलन के कारण
डिप्रेशनआदि …
वहीँ स्त्रियों में अनियमित मासिक, बन्ध्यत्व, (PCO
poly cystic oveary) गर्भाशय कैंसर आदि रोग हो रहे है
५) अन्डो में पोषक पदार्थो के लाभ से ज्यादा इन रोगों से
हांनी का पलड़ा ही भारी है .
६) अन्डो के अंदर का पीला भाग लगभग ७० %
कोलेस्ट्रोल है जो की ह्रदय रोग (heart attack)
का मुख्य कारण है
7) पक्षियों की माहवारी (अन्डो)
को खाना धर्म और शास्त्रों के विरुद्ध , अप्राकृतिक , और अपवित्र और
चंडाल कर्म है
इसकी जगह पर आप दूध पीजिए जो के
पोषक , पवित्र और शास्त्र सम्मत भी है|

#रमा_गोस्वामी
अण्डे का सच और रहस्य जिसे पढ़ कर सारा भारत देश अंडा!
खाना छोड देगा
यह देख कर अत्यंत खेद और आश्चर्य होता है
की अंडा शाकाहार का पर्याय बन चुका है,ब्राह्मणों से
लेकर जैनियों तक सभी ने खुल्लमखुल्ला अंडा खाना शुरू
कर दिया है ...
मादा स्तनपाईयों (बन्दर बिल्ली गाय मनुष्य) में एक निश्चित
समय के बाद अंडोत्सर्जन एक चक्र के रूप में होता है
उदारहरणतः मनुष्यों में यह महीने में एक बार,.. चार दिन
तक होता है जिसे माहवारी या मासिक धर्म कहते
है ..उन दिनों में स्त्रियों को पूजा पाठ चूल्हा रसोईघर आदि से दूर
रखा जाता है ..यहाँ तक की स्नान से पहले
किसी को छूना भी वर्जित है कई
परिवारों में ...शास्त्रों में भी इन नियमों का वर्णन है
इस स्राव के दौरान स्त्रियोंमें मादा हार्मोन (estrogen)
की अत्यधिक मात्रा उत्सर्जित होती है और
सारे शारीर से यह निकलता रहता है ..,
अब आते है मुर्गी के अण्डे की ओर
१) पक्षियों (मुर्गियों) में भी अंडोत्सर्जन एक चक्र के रूप
में होता है अंतर केवल इतना है की वह तरल रूप में
ना हो कर ठोस (अण्डे) के रूप में बाहर आता है ,
२) सीधे तौर पर कहा जाए
तो अंडा मुर्गी की माहवारी या मासिक
धर्म है और मादा हार्मोन (estrogen) से भरपूर है और बहुत
ही हानिकारक है
३) ज्यादा पैसे कमाने के लिए आधुनिक तकनीक का प्रयोग
कर आजकल मुर्गियोंको भारत में निषेधित ड्रग ओक्सिटोसिन(oxyt
ocin) का इंजेक्शन लगाया जाता है जिससे के मुर्गियाँ लगातार अनिषेचित
(unfertilized) अण्डे देती है
४) इन भ्रूणों (अन्डो) को खाने से पुरुषों में (estrogen) हार्मोन के
बढ़ने के कारण कई रोग उत्पन्न हो रहे है जैसे के
वीर्य में शुक्राणुओ
की कमी (oligozoospermi a,
azoospermia) , नपुंसकता और
स्तनों का उगना (gynacomastia), हार्मोन असंतुलन के कारण
डिप्रेशनआदि ...
वहीँ स्त्रियों में अनियमित मासिक, बन्ध्यत्व, (PCO
poly cystic oveary) गर्भाशय कैंसर आदि रोग हो रहे है
५) अन्डो में पोषक पदार्थो के लाभ से ज्यादा इन रोगों से
हांनी का पलड़ा ही भारी है .
६) अन्डो के अंदर का पीला भाग लगभग ७० %
कोलेस्ट्रोल है जो की ह्रदय रोग (heart attack)
का मुख्य कारण है
7) पक्षियों की माहवारी (अन्डो)
को खाना धर्म और शास्त्रों के विरुद्ध , अप्राकृतिक , और अपवित्र और
चंडाल कर्म है
इसकी जगह पर आप दूध पीजिए जो के
पोषक , पवित्र और शास्त्र सम्मत भी है|
Posted in भारतीय मंदिर - Bharatiya Mandir

The Kali Temple


The Kali Temple at Kalighat in Kolkata is about 200 years old, while there is mention of this temple in Mansar Bhasan penned in the 15th century, and also in Kavi Kankan Chandi dated 17th century. Two types of coins of the period of Chandragupta II, who integrated Vanga in the empire of the Guptas, are known from Bengal. Shared from Indianetzone Know more about the temple here:

Posted in हिन्दू पतन

समझिये कि धर्म को कैसे कमज़ोर किया जाता है ? नीचे दिखाया गया पोस्ट इसका एक सरल उदाहरण है ..


समझिये कि धर्म को कैसे कमज़ोर किया जाता है ? नीचे दिखाया गया पोस्ट इसका एक सरल उदाहरण है ..

सामान्य रूप से, प्रथम दृष्टया, देखने पर इसमें बहुत ही अच्छा सन्देश समझ आता है .. कितनी अच्छी बात है कि गरीबो पर ध्यान दिया जाए .. एक दम भावुक कि कोई इसके विपरीत बोलने की हिम्मत ना कर सकें ..

किन्तु प्यार से ज़हर पिलाया जा रहा यह दिखाई नहीं देता ..

चलिए मान लेते है कि उपरोक्त एक बहुत अच्छा सन्देश है .. तब क्यों न बहुत से त्यौहारो को ही मनाना ही छोड़ दे ? सब त्यौहार में बस एक ही काम करें .. गरीब बच्चो की सेवा में ही लगे रहे। फिर क्यों न महा-शिवरात्रि में शिवजी को दूध पिलाना भी छोड़ दें ? होली पर पानी व्यर्थ करना छोड़ दें ? दशहरा पर रावण का पुतला जलना भी छोड़ दें, वहाँ पर भी पंगत लगाकर गरीबो को भोजन दें.. दिवाली पर प्रकाश करना भी छोड़ दें, हवन करना भी छोड़ दें क्योकि उससे भी कुछ पैसे बचेंगे वो किसी मदरसे में दे देंगे वहां भी तो बच्चे पढ़ते है ।

कृपया हिन्दुओ को अपना ज्योहार अपने तरीके से मनाने दें, खुशियों के साथ। किसी के बाप का पैसा नहीं है कि हमें यह बताये कि हमारे त्योहारों में क्या क्या ना किया जाए | और न ही हम सब सिर्फ साधू संत है .. हम राजा भी है, क्षत्रिय भी है, वैश्य भी है, शूद्र भी है .. हमारे अपने शौक है .. हमारे अपने जीने का तरीका है .. हमारी अपनी परम्पराएँ है अपना समाज है अपना रीति-रिवाज है ..

गरीबो को खाना खिलने के लिए साल में और दिन भी होते है.. किसने मना किया आपको ? बस दिवाली की पटाखों, शिवरात्रि के दूध, और होली के पानी से ही गरीबो का पेट भरेगा ? सारे दुनिया के Pollution, गरीबी, कमज़ोर वर्ग का ठेका क्या बस हिन्दुओ के त्योहारों और परम्पराओ ने ही ले रखा है ? कुछ भी हो शुरू हो जाते है की ये मत करो वो करो ..

सेक्युलर / कम्युनिस्ट / इंटेलेक्चुअल लोगो के बिछाए जाल में न फंसे .. वरना ये आप को कहीं का भी नहीं छोड़ेंगे .. पैसा बचाने के लिए और भी तरीके है.. गरीबो की सेवा के और भी तरीके है .. कृपया त्यौहार के सामान्य तरीको से छेद-छाड़ न करें। हमें खुशियों से अपना त्यौहार मनाने दें.

मित्रो, कृपया सोचिये और देखिये क़ी पानी बचाने, दूध ना चडाने और पटाखे न चलाने में बहुत थोडा सा अंतर है.. किन्तु सबका सिर्फ एक ही मतलब है और वो है अपने धर्म और मान्यताओ को गलत साबित कर, संदेह पैदा करना और अपने आत्मविश्वास को कमज़ोर करना और आपका यह सन्देश ऐसा ही कर रहा है।

ये एक षड़यंत्र है हमारी मान्यताओ को गलत साबित करने का, हमारे तौर-तरीको पर प्रश्न चिन्ह लगाने का .. हमारे अन्दर अपने त्यौहार मनाने के प्रति संदेह पैदा करने का .. अनावश्यक बातो में, निरर्थक बहस में उलझाने का .. हिन्दू कोई गरीब नहीं है .. याद कीजिए अपने देवी-देवताओ को कि किनती शान-शौकत से रहते थे .. हमें अधिकार भी है और स्वतंत्रता भी कि हम अपने तरीके से खुशियाँ मनाये और धन-वैभव का प्रदर्शन भी करें .. बहुत हो चुका गरीबी, भुखमरी का रोना-धोना .. हिन्दुओ को अपनी आन-बान-शान से मानाने चाहिए .. धर्मार्थ कार्यो के साल में बहुत दिन होते है ..

कृपया चिंतन करें, सत्य आपको स्पष्ट दिखाई देने लगेगा।

समझिये कि धर्म को कैसे कमज़ोर किया जाता है ? नीचे दिखाया गया पोस्ट इसका एक सरल उदाहरण है ..

सामान्य रूप से, प्रथम दृष्टया, देखने पर इसमें बहुत ही अच्छा सन्देश समझ आता है .. कितनी अच्छी बात है कि गरीबो पर ध्यान दिया जाए .. एक दम भावुक कि कोई इसके विपरीत बोलने की हिम्मत ना कर सकें ..

किन्तु प्यार से ज़हर पिलाया जा रहा यह दिखाई नहीं देता ..

चलिए मान लेते है कि उपरोक्त एक बहुत अच्छा सन्देश है .. तब क्यों न बहुत से त्यौहारो को ही मनाना ही छोड़ दे ? सब त्यौहार में बस एक ही काम करें .. गरीब बच्चो की सेवा में ही लगे रहे। फिर क्यों न महा-शिवरात्रि में शिवजी को दूध पिलाना भी छोड़ दें ? होली पर पानी व्यर्थ करना छोड़ दें ? दशहरा पर रावण का पुतला जलना भी छोड़ दें, वहाँ पर भी पंगत लगाकर गरीबो को भोजन दें.. दिवाली पर प्रकाश करना भी छोड़ दें, हवन करना भी छोड़ दें क्योकि उससे भी कुछ पैसे बचेंगे वो किसी मदरसे में दे देंगे वहां भी तो बच्चे पढ़ते है ।

कृपया हिन्दुओ को अपना ज्योहार अपने तरीके से मनाने दें, खुशियों के साथ। किसी के बाप का पैसा नहीं है कि हमें यह बताये कि हमारे त्योहारों में क्या क्या ना किया जाए | और न ही हम सब सिर्फ साधू संत है .. हम राजा भी है, क्षत्रिय भी है, वैश्य भी है, शूद्र भी है .. हमारे अपने शौक है .. हमारे अपने जीने का तरीका है .. हमारी अपनी परम्पराएँ है अपना समाज है अपना रीति-रिवाज है ..

गरीबो को खाना खिलने के लिए साल में और दिन भी होते है.. किसने मना किया आपको ? बस दिवाली की पटाखों, शिवरात्रि के दूध, और होली के पानी से ही गरीबो का पेट भरेगा ? सारे दुनिया के Pollution, गरीबी, कमज़ोर वर्ग का ठेका क्या बस हिन्दुओ के त्योहारों और परम्पराओ ने ही ले रखा है ? कुछ भी हो शुरू हो जाते है की ये मत करो वो करो ..

सेक्युलर / कम्युनिस्ट / इंटेलेक्चुअल लोगो के बिछाए जाल में न फंसे .. वरना ये आप को कहीं का भी नहीं छोड़ेंगे .. पैसा बचाने के लिए और भी तरीके है.. गरीबो की सेवा के और भी तरीके है .. कृपया त्यौहार के सामान्य तरीको से छेद-छाड़ न करें। हमें खुशियों से अपना त्यौहार मनाने दें.

मित्रो, कृपया सोचिये और देखिये क़ी पानी बचाने, दूध ना चडाने और पटाखे न चलाने में बहुत थोडा सा अंतर है.. किन्तु सबका सिर्फ एक ही मतलब है और वो है अपने धर्म और मान्यताओ को गलत साबित कर, संदेह पैदा करना और अपने आत्मविश्वास को कमज़ोर करना और आपका यह सन्देश ऐसा ही कर रहा है।

ये एक षड़यंत्र है हमारी मान्यताओ को गलत साबित करने का, हमारे तौर-तरीको पर प्रश्न चिन्ह लगाने का .. हमारे अन्दर अपने त्यौहार मनाने के प्रति संदेह पैदा करने का .. अनावश्यक बातो में, निरर्थक बहस में उलझाने का .. हिन्दू कोई गरीब नहीं है .. याद कीजिए अपने देवी-देवताओ को कि किनती शान-शौकत से रहते थे .. हमें अधिकार भी है और स्वतंत्रता भी कि हम अपने तरीके से खुशियाँ मनाये और धन-वैभव का प्रदर्शन भी करें .. बहुत हो चुका गरीबी, भुखमरी का रोना-धोना .. हिन्दुओ को अपनी आन-बान-शान से मानाने चाहिए .. धर्मार्थ कार्यो के साल में बहुत दिन होते है ..

कृपया चिंतन करें, सत्य आपको स्पष्ट दिखाई देने लगेगा।
Posted in रामायण - Ramayan

IRAN & IRAQ – THE RAMAYANA CONNECTION


IRAN & IRAQ – THE RAMAYANA CONNECTION
———————————
When Sita was held in captive, four vanara brigades were readied to be sent out in four different directions for the search of ‘Goddess’ Sita
The search-party is given a route-map by Sugreeva the vanara chief, which leads them right up to what was known as the Asta Mountain

Sage Valmiki traces the route of the vanaras going in the western direction. An easily identifiable location that he mentions in the Ramayana is the geographical point where the Sindhu, that is the Indus falls into the Arabian Sea. That would be close to present day Karachi

During the course vanaras are told that they will come across in succession ,many mountain peaks which are named as Varaha, Meghavanta and finally Meru. These appear to be mountain peaks of the Zagros range, located across the Arabian Sea in Iran, extending to Iraq.

Valmiki also mentions a city by the name of Pragjyotisha. If we assume that the sea-levels during the Ramayana era were higher than they are today many of the mountains of the Zagros range in Iran would be water-logged.
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India ruled the whole world before 7000 BC
——————————————
SOURCE : http://vediccafe.blogspot.in/2013/05/iran-ramayana-connection.html
——————————————

IRAN & IRAQ - THE RAMAYANA CONNECTION --------------------------------- When Sita was held in captive, four vanara brigades were readied to be sent out in four different directions for the search of 'Goddess' Sita The search-party is given a route-map by Sugreeva the vanara chief, which leads them right up to what was known as the Asta Mountain Sage Valmiki traces the route of the vanaras going in the western direction. An easily identifiable location that he mentions in the Ramayana is the geographical point where the Sindhu, that is the Indus falls into the Arabian Sea. That would be close to present day Karachi During the course vanaras are told that they will come across in succession ,many mountain peaks which are named as Varaha, Meghavanta and finally Meru. These appear to be mountain peaks of the Zagros range, located across the Arabian Sea in Iran, extending to Iraq. Valmiki also mentions a city by the name of Pragjyotisha. If we assume that the sea-levels during the Ramayana era were higher than they are today many of the mountains of the Zagros range in Iran would be water-logged. ------------------------------------------ India ruled the whole world before 7000 BC ------------------------------------------ SOURCE : http://vediccafe.blogspot.in/2013/05/iran-ramayana-connection.html ------------------------------------------
Posted in भारतीय मंदिर - Bharatiya Mandir

Mahadev Temple, Tambdi Surla is a 12th-century Shaivite temple of the Lord Mahadeva and an active place of Hindu worship. It is notable as the oldest temple in Goa, India


Mahadev Temple, Tambdi Surla is a 12th-century Shaivite temple of the Lord Mahadeva and an active place of Hindu worship. It is notable as the oldest temple in Goa, India

Religious significance and decoration[edit]
The temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is reminiscent of the temples at Aihole in neighbouring Karnataka. There is a linga (symbol of Lord Shiva) mounted on a pedestal inside the inner sanctum, and local legend has it that a huge king cobra is in permanent residence in the dimly lit interior.

The temple consists of garbhagriha, antarala and a pillared Nandi mandapa built of basalt. The four pillars, embellished with intricate carvings of elephants and chains support a stone ceiling decorated with finely carved Ashtoken lotus flowers.

The intricate carvings created by skilled craftsmen adorn the interior and the sides of the building. Bas-relief figures of Lord Shiva, Lord Vishnu and Lord Brahma, with their respective consorts appear on panels at the sides of the temple. Unusually, the mandap (pillared hall) is covered with a roof of plain grey sloping slabs. The temple faces east so that the first rays of the rising sun shine on the deity. There is a small mandap and the inner sanctum is surmounted by a three-tired tower whose top is incomplete or has been dismantled sometime in the distant past.

There is a headless Nandi (bull, Shiva’s vehicle) in the centre of the mandap, surrounded by four matching columns. The symbol of the Kadamba kingdom, an elephant trampling a horse is carved on the base of one of the columns. The river Surla flows nearby and is reachable for ritual bathing by a flight of stone steps.

The festival of Mahashivratri is celebrated with pomp and gaiety at the temple by local people residing in surrounding villages. The temple is built in a place which is quite inaccessible and away from the main settlements of the time. The temple is small compared to the average Goan temple.

Mahadev Temple, Tambdi Surla is a 12th-century Shaivite temple of the Lord Mahadeva and an active place of Hindu worship. It is notable as the oldest temple in Goa, India

Religious significance and decoration[edit]
The temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is reminiscent of the temples at Aihole in neighbouring Karnataka. There is a linga (symbol of Lord Shiva) mounted on a pedestal inside the inner sanctum, and local legend has it that a huge king cobra is in permanent residence in the dimly lit interior.

The temple consists of garbhagriha, antarala and a pillared Nandi mandapa built of basalt. The four pillars, embellished with intricate carvings of elephants and chains support a stone ceiling decorated with finely carved Ashtoken lotus flowers.

The intricate carvings created by skilled craftsmen adorn the interior and the sides of the building. Bas-relief figures of Lord Shiva, Lord Vishnu and Lord Brahma, with their respective consorts appear on panels at the sides of the temple. Unusually, the mandap (pillared hall) is covered with a roof of plain grey sloping slabs. The temple faces east so that the first rays of the rising sun shine on the deity. There is a small mandap and the inner sanctum is surmounted by a three-tired tower whose top is incomplete or has been dismantled sometime in the distant past.

There is a headless Nandi (bull, Shiva's vehicle) in the centre of the mandap, surrounded by four matching columns. The symbol of the Kadamba kingdom, an elephant trampling a horse is carved on the base of one of the columns. The river Surla flows nearby and is reachable for ritual bathing by a flight of stone steps.

The festival of Mahashivratri is celebrated with pomp and gaiety at the temple by local people residing in surrounding villages. The temple is built in a place which is quite inaccessible and away from the main settlements of the time. The temple is small compared to the average Goan temple.
Posted in Sai conspiracy

प्रकृति और विज्ञान का एक सिद्धान्त है
कि अगर आप सकारात्मक सोचते हो तो सकारत्मक सोच आएगी
अगर आप नकारात्मक सोचते हो तो नकारात्मक सोच आएगी

अगर आप सकारात्मक सोच वाले इंसान या भगवान के वारे मे सोचते हो तो सकारात्मक विचार आएंगे । अगर आप नकारात्मक ऊर्जा वाले इंसान या मुर्दे के बारे मे सोचते है या पूजा करते है तो नकारात्मक ऊर्जा आएगी ।

अब प्यारे हिन्दुओ आप सोचो इस साई फकीर के बारे जो कि एक भिखारी था जो एक हफ्ते मे एक बार स्नान करता था और मांस का सेवन और चिलम पीता था और नेगेटिव ऊर्जा का भंडार था ।

अगर आप एक भिक्षा मांगने वाले की पूजा करोगे तो आपके घर मे भिखारीपन और गरीबी और दरिद्रता अवश्य ही आ जाएगी तथा बच्चे नशेड़ी हो जाएगे । इस लिए साई की पूजा करने वाले सभी लोग नेगेटिव ऊर्जा ग्रहण करके दुखी हो रहे है । और साई के नाम पर धोका देकर दान का पैसा खा रहे है वे तात्कालिक सुखी अवश्य है पर उनका रूप भी भिखारी ही बोला जाएगा ।

अब आप स्वयं ही इस फोटो को देखे कि कितनी नेगेटिव ऊर्जा है । जबकि भगवान , ज्ञानी , देवता , गुरु और तपस्वी के चेहरे पर तेज़ झलकता है । जय श्री कृष्ण

Dr HsRawat
जय सियाराम
धर्मो रक्षति रक्षितः
धर्म की जय हो अधर्म का नाश हो |

‪#‎ExposeShirdisai‬ ‪#‎Bhaktijihad‬ ‪#‎FraudSai‬

प्रकृति और विज्ञान का एक सिद्धान्त है 
कि अगर आप सकारात्मक सोचते हो तो सकारत्मक सोच आएगी 
अगर आप नकारात्मक सोचते हो तो नकारात्मक सोच आएगी 

अगर आप सकारात्मक सोच वाले इंसान या भगवान के वारे मे सोचते हो तो सकारात्मक विचार आएंगे । अगर आप नकारात्मक ऊर्जा वाले इंसान या मुर्दे के बारे मे सोचते है या पूजा करते है तो नकारात्मक ऊर्जा आएगी । 

अब प्यारे हिन्दुओ आप सोचो इस साई फकीर के बारे जो कि एक भिखारी था जो एक हफ्ते मे एक बार स्नान करता था और मांस का सेवन और चिलम पीता था और नेगेटिव ऊर्जा का भंडार था । 

अगर आप एक भिक्षा मांगने वाले की पूजा करोगे तो आपके घर मे भिखारीपन और गरीबी और दरिद्रता अवश्य ही आ जाएगी तथा बच्चे नशेड़ी हो जाएगे । इस लिए साई की पूजा करने वाले सभी लोग नेगेटिव ऊर्जा ग्रहण करके दुखी हो रहे है । और साई के नाम पर धोका देकर दान का पैसा खा रहे है वे तात्कालिक सुखी अवश्य है पर उनका रूप भी भिखारी ही बोला जाएगा । 

अब आप स्वयं ही इस फोटो को देखे कि कितनी नेगेटिव ऊर्जा है । जबकि भगवान , ज्ञानी , देवता , गुरु और तपस्वी के चेहरे पर तेज़ झलकता है । जय श्री कृष्ण

Dr HsRawat
जय सियाराम 
धर्मो रक्षति रक्षितः
धर्म की जय हो अधर्म का नाश हो |

#ExposeShirdisai #Bhaktijihad #FraudSai
Posted in गौ माता - Gau maata

गाय एक चिकित्सा शास्त्र :
गौमाता एक चलती फिरती चिकित्सालय है। गाय के रीढ़ में सूर्य केतु नाड़ी होती है जो सूर्य के गुणों को धारण करती है। सभी नक्षत्रों की यह रिसीवर है। यही कारण है कि गौमूत्र, गोबर, दूध, दही, घी में औषधीय गुण होते हैं।
1. गौमूत्र :- आयुर्वेद में गौमूत्र के ढेरों प्रयोग कहे गए हैं। गौमूत्र को विषनाशक, रसायन, त्रिदोषनाशक माना गया है। गौमूत्र का रासायनिक विश्लेषण करने पर वैज्ञानिकों ने पाया, कि इसमें 24 ऐसे तत्व हैं जो शरीर के विभिन्न रोगों को ठीक करने की क्षमता रखते हैं। गौमूत्र से लगभग 108 रोग ठीक होते हैं। गौमूत्र स्वस्थ देशी गाय का ही लेना चाहिए। काली बछिया का हो तो सर्वोत्तम। बूढ़ी, अस्वस्थ व गाभिन गाय का मूत्र नहीं लेना चाहिए। गौमूत्र को कांच या मिट्टी के बर्तन में लेकर साफ सूती कपड़े के आठ तहों से छानकर चौथाई कप खाली पेट पीना चाहिए।
गौमूत्र से ठीक होने वाले कुछ रोगों के नाम – मोटापा, कैंसर, डायबिटीज, कब्ज, गैस, भूख की कमी, वातरोग, कफ, दमा, नेत्ररोग, धातुक्षीणता, स्त्रीरोग, बालरोग आदि।
गौमूत्र से विभिन्न प्रकार की औषधियाँ भी बनाई जाती है –
1. गौमूत्र अर्क(सादा) 2. औषधियुक्त गौमूत्र अर्क(विभिन्न रोगों के हिसाब से) 3. गौमूत्र घनबटी 4. गौमूत्रासव 5. नारी संजीवनी 6. बालपाल रस 7. पमेहारी आदि।
2. गोबर :- गोबर विषनाशक है। यदि किसी को विषधारी जीव ने काट दिया है तो पूरे शरीर को गोबर गौमूत्र के घोल में डुबा देना चाहिए।
नकसीर आने पर गोबर सुंघाने से लाभ होता है।
प्रसव को सामान्य व सुखद कराने के समय गोबर गोमूत्र के घोल को छानकर 1 गिलास पिला देना चाहिए(गोबर व गौमूत्र ताजा होना चाहिए)। गोबर के कण्डों को जलाकर कोयला प्राप्त किया जाता है जिसके चूर्ण से मंजन बनता है। यह मंजन दांत के रोगों में लाभकारी है।
3. दूध : – गौदुग्ध को आहार शास्त्रियों ने सम्पूर्ण आहार माना है और पाया है। यदि मनुष्य केवल गाय के दूध का ही सेवन करता रहे तो उसका शरीर व जीवन न केवल सुचारू रूप से चलता रहेगा वरन् वह अन्य लोगों की अपकक्षा सशक्त और रोग प्रतिरोधक क्षमता से संपन्न हो जाएगा। मानव शरीर के लिए आवश्यक सभी पोषक तत्व इसमें होते हैं। गाय के एक पौण्ड दूध से इतनी शक्ति मिलती है, जितनी की 4 अण्डों और 250 ग्राम मांस से भी प्राप्त नहीं होती। देशी गाय के दूध में विटामिल ए-2 होता है जो कि कैंसरनाशक है, जबकि जर्सी(विदेशी) गाय के दूध में विटामिन ए-1 होता है जो कि कैंसरकारक है। भैंस के दूध की तुलना में भी गौदुग्ध अत्यन्त लाभकारी है।
दस्त या आंव हो जाने पर ठंडा गौदुग्ध(1 गिलास) में एक नींबू निचोडक़र तुरन्त पी जावें। चोट लगने आदि के कारण शरीर में कहीं दर्द हो तो गर्म दूध में हल्दी मिलाकर पीवें। टी.बी. के रोगी को गौदुग्ध पर्याप्त मात्रा में दोनों समय पिलाया जाना चाहिए।
4. दही : – गर्भिणी यदि चाँदी के कटोरी में दही जमाकर नित्य प्रात: सेवन करे तो उसका सन्तान स्वस्थ, सुन्दर व बुद्धिवान होता है। गाय का दही भूख बढ़ाने वाला, मलमूत्र का नि:सरण करने वाला एवं रूचिकर है। केवल दही बालों में लगाने से जुएं नष्ट हो जाते हैं। बवासीर में प्रतिदिन छाछ का प्रयोग लाभकारी है। नित्य भोजन में दही का सेवन करने से आयु बढ़ती है।
कुछ प्रयोग :-
* अनिद्रा में गौघृत कुनकुना करके दो-दो बूंद नाक में डालें व दोनों तलवों में घृत से 10 मिनट तक मालिश करें। यही प्रयोग मिर्गी, बाल झडऩा, बाल पकना व सिर दर्द में भी लाभकारी है।
* घाव में गौघृत हल्दी के साथ लगावें। * अधिक समय तक ज्वर रहने से जो कमजोरी आ जाती है उसके लिए गौदुग्ध में 2 चम्मच घी प्रात: सायं सेवन करें। * भूख की कमी होने पर भोजन के पहले घी 1 चम्मच सेंधानमक नींबू रस लेने से भूख बढ़ती है।
गौघृत से विभिन्न प्रकार की औषधियाँ भी बनती है – अष्टमंगल घृत, पञ्चतिक्त घृत, फलघृत, जात्यादि घृत, अर्शोहर मरहम आदि।
गाय एक पर्यावरण शास्त्र :
1. गाय के रम्भाने से वातावरण के कीटाणु नष्ट होते हैं। सात्विक तरंगों का संचार होता है।
2. गौघृत का होम करने से आक्सीजन पैदा होता है।
– वैज्ञानिक शिरोविचा, रूस
3. गंदगी व महामारी फैलने पर गोबर गौमूत्र का छिडक़ाव करने से लाभ होता है।
4. गाय के प्रश्वांस, गोबर गौमूत्र के गंध से वातावरण शुद्ध पवित्र होता है।
5. घटना – टी.बी. का मरीज गौशाला मे केवल गोबर एकत्र करने व वहीं निवास करने पर ठीक हो गया।
6. विश्वव्यापी आण्विक एवं अणुरज के घातक दुष्परिणाम से बचने के लिए रूस के प्रसिद्ध वैज्ञानिक शिरोविच ने सुझाव दिया है –
* प्रत्येक व्यक्ति को गाय का दूध, दही, छाछ, घी आदि का सेवन करना चाहिए।
* घरों के छत, दीवार व आंगन को गोबर से लीपने पोतने चाहिए।
* खेतों में गाय के गोबर का खाद प्रयोग करना चाहिए।
* वायुमण्डल को घातक विकिरण से बचाने के लिए गाय के शुद्ध घी से हवन करना चाहिए।
7. गाय के गोबर से प्रतिवर्ष 4500 लीटर बायोगैस मिल सकता है। अगर देश के समस्त गौवंश के गोबर का बायोगैस संयंत्र में उपयोग किया जाय तो वर्तमान में ईंधन के रूप में जलाई जा रही 6 करोड़ 80 लाख टन लकउ़ी की बचत की जा सकती है। इससे लगभग 14
करोड़ वृक्ष कटने से बच सकते हैं।
गाय एक अर्थशास्त्र :
सबसे अधिक लाभप्रद, उत्पादन एवं मौलिक व्यवसाय है ‘गौपालन’। यदि एक गाय के दूध, दही, घी, गोबर, गौमूत्र का पूरा-पूरा उपयोग व्यवसायिक तरीके से किया जाए तो उससे प्राप्त आय से एक परिवार का पलन आसानी से हो सकता है।
यदि गौवंश आधारित कृषि को भी व्यवसाय का माध्यम बना लिया जाए तब तो औरों को भी रोजगार दिया जा सकता है।
* गौमूत्र से औषधियाँ एपं कीट नियंत्रक बनाया जा सकता है।
* गोबर से गैस उत्वादन हो तो रसोई में ईंधन का खर्च बचाने के साथ-साथ स्लरी खाद का भी लाभ लिया जा सकता है। गोबर से काला दंत मंजन भी बनाया जाता है।
* घी को हवन हेतु विक्रय करने पर अच्छी कीमत मिल सकती है। घी से विभिन्न औषधियाँ (सिद्ध घृत) बनाकर भी बेची जा सकती है।
* दूध को सीधे बेचने के बजाय उत्पाद बनाकर बेचना ज्यादा लाभकारी है।
गाय एक कृषिशास्त्र :
मित्रों! गौवंश के बिना कृषि असंभव है। यदि आज के तथकथित वैज्ञानिक युग में टै्रक्टर, रासायनिक खाद, कीटनाशक आदि के द्वारा बिना गौवंश के कृषि किया भी जा रहा है, तो उसके भयंकर दुष्परिणाम से आज कोई अनजान नहीं है।
यदि कृषि को, जमीन को, अनाज आदि को बर्बाद होने से बचाना है तो गौवंश आधारित कृषि अर्थात् प्राकृतिक कृषि को पुन: अपनाना अनिवार्य है।

Posted in भारत का गुप्त इतिहास- Bharat Ka rahasyamay Itihaas

Names of India


‎Names of India

The Republic of India has two principal short names in both official and popular English usage, each of which is historically significant, India and Bharat. The first article of the Constitution of India states that "India, that is Bharat, shall be a union of states," implicitly codifying India and Bharat as equally official short names for the Republic of India. A third name, Hindustan, is a historical term for the north and northwestern subcontinent (especially during the British India period) that is now widely used as an alternative name for the region comprising most of the modern nations of the subcontinent when Indians speak among themselves. The usage of Bharat, Hindustan or India is dependant on the context and language of conversation.

The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hinduš. The latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ινδοί), which translates as "the people of the Indus".
The geographical term Bharat (pronounced [ˈbʱaːrət̪], which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. The eponym of Bharat is Bharata, a theological figure that Hindu scriptures describe as a legendary emperor of ancient India. Hindustan ([ɦɪnd̪ʊˈst̪aːn] was originally a Persian word that meant "Land of the Hindus"; prior to 1947, it referred to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan. It is occasionally used to solely denote India in its entirety.

Bhārata, Bhārat(Bhāratavarsha)
The name Bhārata (/bˈhɑːrəθ/) (भारत) has been used as a self-ascribed name by people of the Indian Subcontinent and the Republic of India. Bhārata is the official Sanskrit name of the country, Bhārata Gaṇarājya, and the name is derived from the ancient Indian texts, that which refers to the land that comprises India as Bhārata varṣam, and uses this term to distinguish it from other varṣas or continents. For example, the Vayu Puranas says he who conquers the whole of Bharata-varsa is celebrated as a samrāt (Vayu Purana 45, 86). However in some puranas, the term 'Bharate' refers to the whole Earth as Emperor Bharata is said to have ruled the whole Earth. Until the death of Maharaja Parikshit, the last formidable emperor of the Kuru dynasty, the known world was known as Bharata varsha.

According to the most popular theory the name Bhārata is the vrddhi of Bharata, a king mentioned in Rigveda.

The Sanskrit word bhārata is a vrddhi derivation of bharata, which was originally an epithet of Agni. The term is a verbal noun of the Sanskrit root bhr-, "to bear / to carry", with a literal meaning of "to be maintained" (of fire). The root bhr is cognate with the English verb to bear and Latin ferō. This term also means "one who is engaged in search for knowledge".

According to the Puranas(Gita), this country is known as Bharatavarsha after the king Bharata Chakravarti. This has been mentioned in Vishnu Purana (2,1,31), Vayu Purana,(33,52), Linga Purana(1,47,23), Brahmanda Purana (14,5,62), Agni Purana ( 107,11–12), Skanda Purana, Khanda (37,57) and Markandaya Purana (50,41) it is clearly stated that this country is known as Bharata Varsha. Vishnu Purāna mentions:

    ऋषभो मरुदेव्याश्च ऋषभात भरतो भवेत्
    भरताद भारतं वर्षं, भरतात सुमतिस्त्वभूत्
    Rishabha was born to Marudevi, Bharata was born to Rishabh,
    Bharatavarsha (India) arose from Bharata, and Sumati arose from Bharata

        —Vishnu Purana (2,1,31)

    ततश्च भारतं वर्षमेतल्लोकेषुगीयते
    भरताय यत: पित्रा दत्तं प्रतिष्ठिता वनम (विष्णु पुराण, २,१,३२)
    This country is known as Bharatavarsha since the times the father entrusted the kingdom to the son Bharata and he himself went to the forest for ascetic practices [ Rishabha/ Rishabdev is First Trithankar (Teacher) of Jainism. He had two sons Bharat and Bahubali' ]

        —Vishnu Purana (2,1,32)

The realm of Bharata is known as Bharātavarṣa in the Mahabhārata (the core portion of which is itself known as Bhārata) and later texts. The term varsa means a division of the earth, or a continent.  A version of the Bhagavata Purana says, the name Bharata is after Jata Bharata who appears in the fifth canto of the Bhagavata.

        - Vishnu Purana (2.3.1)

    uttaraṃ yatsamudrasya himādreścaiva dakṣiṇam
    varṣaṃ tadbhārataṃ nāma bhāratī yatra santatiḥ

    उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् ।
    वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।।
    "The country (varṣam) that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bhāratam; there dwell the descendants of Bharata."

The term in Classical Sanskrit literature is taken to comprise the present day territories of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Republic of India, Nepal and Bangladesh. This corresponds to the approximate extent of the historical Maurya Empire under emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka the Great (4th to 3rd centuries BC). Later political entities unifying approximately the same region are the Mughal Empire (17th century), the Maratha Empire (18th century), and the British Raj (19th to 20th centuries).

India 
The English term is from Greek Ἰνδία (Indía), via Latin India. Indía in Koine Greek denoted the region of the Indus ("Ἰνδός") river in Pakistan, since Herodotus (5th century BC) ἡ Ἰνδική χώρη, hē Indikē chōrē; "Indian land", Ἰνδός, Indos, "an Indian", from Old Persian (referring to what is now known as Sindh, a province of present day Pakistan, and listed as a conquered territory by Darius I in the Persepolis terrace inscription). The name is derived ultimately from Sindhu, the Sanskrit name of the river, but also meaning "river" generically. Latin India is used by Lucian (2nd century).

The name India was known in Old English, and was used in King Alfred's translation of Orosius. In Middle English, the name was, under French influence, replaced by Ynde or Inde, which entered Early Modern English as Indie. The name India then came back to English usage from the 17th century onwards, and may be due to the influence of Latin, or Spanish or Portuguese.

Sanskrit indu "drop (of Soma)", also a term for the Moon, is unrelated, but has sometimes been erroneously connected, listed by, among others, Colonel James Todd in his Annals of Rajputana. Todd describes ancient India as under control of tribes claiming descent from the Moon, or "Indu" (referring to Chandravanshi Rajputs).

Hindustan 
The name Hind (Persian: هند) is derived from the Iranian equivalent of Sindh. The Persian -stān means "country" or "land" (cognate to Sanskrit sthāna "place, land").

Modern day North India was included as Hindustān (Persian: هندوستان) in Persian, الهند is the term in the Arabic language (e.g. in the 11th century. It also occurs intermittently in usage within India, such as in the phrase Jai Hind (Hindi: जय हिन्द).

Hindustān, as the term "india" itself, entered the English language in the 17th century. In the 19th century, the term as used in English referred to the northern region of the subcontinent between the Indus and Brahmaputra rivers and between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas in particular, hence the term Hindustani for the Hindi-Urdu language. Hindustan was in use synonymously with India during the British Raj.

Today, Hindustān is no longer in use as the official name for India, although in Modern Standard Arabic as well as dialects it is the only name for India, (al-Hind الهند).

Historically, the term "Hindustan" is usually applied to the Gangetic Plain of North India, between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas and the Indus river basin in Pakistan.

Further, it may pertain to numerous aspects belonging to three geographical areas: the Indus River basin during medieval times, or a region in northern India, east and south of the Yamuna river, between the Vindhya mountains and the Himalayas where Hindustani language is spoken.

In modern Persian, Urdu and Hindi, Hindustan and its abbreviated version Hind usually refer to the current Republic of India. The abbreviated version appears in the common nationalist salutation of India, Jai Hind, coined by Major Abid Hasan Safrani of the Indian National Army as a shortened version of Jai Hindustan Ki (translation: Victory to India). It was popularized by Subhas Chandra Bose, who used it on Azad Hind Radio during the Indian independence movement. It appears in the revered song, Aye Mere Watan Ke Logon. Today, it is widely used as a salutation and a battle cry in the Indian Armed Forces. It is also commonly used to sign off at the end of major speeches.

Most formally, in the proper disciplines of Geography and History, Hindustan refers to the region of the upper and middle Ganges valley; Hindustan by this definition is the region located between (but not including) the distinct lands of Punjab in the northwest and Bengal in the north-east. So used, the term is not a synonym for terms "South Asia", "India", "Country of the Hindus" [sic], or of the modern-day Republic of India, variously interpreted.‎

Names of India

The Republic of India has two principal short names in both official and popular English usage, each of which is historically significant, India and Bharat. The first article of the Constitution of India states that “India, that is Bharat, shall be a union of states,” implicitly codifying India and Bharat as equally official short names for the Republic of India. A third name, Hindustan, is a historical term for the north and northwestern subcontinent (especially during the British India period) that is now widely used as an alternative name for the region comprising most of the modern nations of the subcontinent when Indians speak among themselves. The usage of Bharat, Hindustan or India is dependant on the context and language of conversation.

The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hinduš. The latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ινδοί), which translates as “the people of the Indus”.
The geographical term Bharat (pronounced [ˈbʱaːrət̪], which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. The eponym of Bharat is Bharata, a theological figure that Hindu scriptures describe as a legendary emperor of ancient India. Hindustan ([ɦɪnd̪ʊˈst̪aːn] was originally a Persian word that meant “Land of the Hindus”; prior to 1947, it referred to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan. It is occasionally used to solely denote India in its entirety.

Bhārata, Bhārat(Bhāratavarsha)
The name Bhārata (/bˈhɑːrəθ/) (भारत) has been used as a self-ascribed name by people of the Indian Subcontinent and the Republic of India. Bhārata is the official Sanskrit name of the country, Bhārata Gaṇarājya, and the name is derived from the ancient Indian texts, that which refers to the land that comprises India as Bhārata varṣam, and uses this term to distinguish it from other varṣas or continents. For example, the Vayu Puranas says he who conquers the whole of Bharata-varsa is celebrated as a samrāt (Vayu Purana 45, 86). However in some puranas, the term ‘Bharate’ refers to the whole Earth as Emperor Bharata is said to have ruled the whole Earth. Until the death of Maharaja Parikshit, the last formidable emperor of the Kuru dynasty, the known world was known as Bharata varsha.

According to the most popular theory the name Bhārata is the vrddhi of Bharata, a king mentioned in Rigveda.

The Sanskrit word bhārata is a vrddhi derivation of bharata, which was originally an epithet of Agni. The term is a verbal noun of the Sanskrit root bhr-, “to bear / to carry”, with a literal meaning of “to be maintained” (of fire). The root bhr is cognate with the English verb to bear and Latin ferō. This term also means “one who is engaged in search for knowledge”.

According to the Puranas(Gita), this country is known as Bharatavarsha after the king Bharata Chakravarti. This has been mentioned in Vishnu Purana (2,1,31), Vayu Purana,(33,52), Linga Purana(1,47,23), Brahmanda Purana (14,5,62), Agni Purana ( 107,11–12), Skanda Purana, Khanda (37,57) and Markandaya Purana (50,41) it is clearly stated that this country is known as Bharata Varsha. Vishnu Purāna mentions:

ऋषभो मरुदेव्याश्च ऋषभात भरतो भवेत्
भरताद भारतं वर्षं, भरतात सुमतिस्त्वभूत्
Rishabha was born to Marudevi, Bharata was born to Rishabh,
Bharatavarsha (India) arose from Bharata, and Sumati arose from Bharata

—Vishnu Purana (2,1,31)

ततश्च भारतं वर्षमेतल्लोकेषुगीयते
भरताय यत: पित्रा दत्तं प्रतिष्ठिता वनम (विष्णु पुराण, २,१,३२)
This country is known as Bharatavarsha since the times the father entrusted the kingdom to the son Bharata and he himself went to the forest for ascetic practices [ Rishabha/ Rishabdev is First Trithankar (Teacher) of Jainism. He had two sons Bharat and Bahubali’ ]

—Vishnu Purana (2,1,32)

The realm of Bharata is known as Bharātavarṣa in the Mahabhārata (the core portion of which is itself known as Bhārata) and later texts. The term varsa means a division of the earth, or a continent. A version of the Bhagavata Purana says, the name Bharata is after Jata Bharata who appears in the fifth canto of the Bhagavata.

– Vishnu Purana (2.3.1)

uttaraṃ yatsamudrasya himādreścaiva dakṣiṇam
varṣaṃ tadbhārataṃ nāma bhāratī yatra santatiḥ

उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् ।
वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।।
“The country (varṣam) that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bhāratam; there dwell the descendants of Bharata.”

The term in Classical Sanskrit literature is taken to comprise the present day territories of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Republic of India, Nepal and Bangladesh. This corresponds to the approximate extent of the historical Maurya Empire under emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka the Great (4th to 3rd centuries BC). Later political entities unifying approximately the same region are the Mughal Empire (17th century), the Maratha Empire (18th century), and the British Raj (19th to 20th centuries).

India
The English term is from Greek Ἰνδία (Indía), via Latin India. Indía in Koine Greek denoted the region of the Indus (“Ἰνδός”) river in Pakistan, since Herodotus (5th century BC) ἡ Ἰνδική χώρη, hē Indikē chōrē; “Indian land”, Ἰνδός, Indos, “an Indian”, from Old Persian (referring to what is now known as Sindh, a province of present day Pakistan, and listed as a conquered territory by Darius I in the Persepolis terrace inscription). The name is derived ultimately from Sindhu, the Sanskrit name of the river, but also meaning “river” generically. Latin India is used by Lucian (2nd century).

The name India was known in Old English, and was used in King Alfred’s translation of Orosius. In Middle English, the name was, under French influence, replaced by Ynde or Inde, which entered Early Modern English as Indie. The name India then came back to English usage from the 17th century onwards, and may be due to the influence of Latin, or Spanish or Portuguese.

Sanskrit indu “drop (of Soma)”, also a term for the Moon, is unrelated, but has sometimes been erroneously connected, listed by, among others, Colonel James Todd in his Annals of Rajputana. Todd describes ancient India as under control of tribes claiming descent from the Moon, or “Indu” (referring to Chandravanshi Rajputs).

Hindustan
The name Hind (Persian: هند) is derived from the Iranian equivalent of Sindh. The Persian -stān means “country” or “land” (cognate to Sanskrit sthāna “place, land”).

Modern day North India was included as Hindustān (Persian: هندوستان) in Persian, الهند is the term in the Arabic language (e.g. in the 11th century. It also occurs intermittently in usage within India, such as in the phrase Jai Hind (Hindi: जय हिन्द).

Hindustān, as the term “india” itself, entered the English language in the 17th century. In the 19th century, the term as used in English referred to the northern region of the subcontinent between the Indus and Brahmaputra rivers and between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas in particular, hence the term Hindustani for the Hindi-Urdu language. Hindustan was in use synonymously with India during the British Raj.

Today, Hindustān is no longer in use as the official name for India, although in Modern Standard Arabic as well as dialects it is the only name for India, (al-Hind الهند).

Historically, the term “Hindustan” is usually applied to the Gangetic Plain of North India, between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas and the Indus river basin in Pakistan.

Further, it may pertain to numerous aspects belonging to three geographical areas: the Indus River basin during medieval times, or a region in northern India, east and south of the Yamuna river, between the Vindhya mountains and the Himalayas where Hindustani language is spoken.

In modern Persian, Urdu and Hindi, Hindustan and its abbreviated version Hind usually refer to the current Republic of India. The abbreviated version appears in the common nationalist salutation of India, Jai Hind, coined by Major Abid Hasan Safrani of the Indian National Army as a shortened version of Jai Hindustan Ki (translation: Victory to India). It was popularized by Subhas Chandra Bose, who used it on Azad Hind Radio during the Indian independence movement. It appears in the revered song, Aye Mere Watan Ke Logon. Today, it is widely used as a salutation and a battle cry in the Indian Armed Forces. It is also commonly used to sign off at the end of major speeches.

Most formally, in the proper disciplines of Geography and History, Hindustan refers to the region of the upper and middle Ganges valley; Hindustan by this definition is the region located between (but not including) the distinct lands of Punjab in the northwest and Bengal in the north-east. So used, the term is not a synonym for terms “South Asia”, “India”, “Country of the Hindus” [sic], or of the modern-day Republic of India, variously interpreted.

Posted in भारत का गुप्त इतिहास- Bharat Ka rahasyamay Itihaas

Indus Valley Civilization


Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India (see map). Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread, covering an area of 1.25 million km2. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings

The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India, and is now in Pakistan. The discovery of Harappa, and soon afterwards, Mohenjo-Daro, was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India in the British Raj. Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area of the Harappan Civilization. The Harappan civilization is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures. By 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements had been found, of which 96 have been excavated, mainly in the general region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers and their tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Ganeriwala in Cholistan and Rakhigarhi.

>> Geography

The Indus Valley Civilization encompassed most of Pakistan and parts of northwestern India, Afghanistan and Iran, extending from Balochistan in the west to Uttar Pradesh in the east, northeastern Afghanistan to the north and Maharashtra to the south. The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilizations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru, with rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean. Recently, Indus sites have been discovered in Pakistan’s northwestern Frontier Province as well. Other IVC colonies can be found in Afghanistan while smaller isolated colonies can be found as far away as Turkmenistan and in Gujarat. Coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor in Western Baluchistan to Lothal in Gujarat. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan, at Manda,Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu, India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28 km from Delhi. Indus Valley sites have been found most often on rivers, but also on the ancient seacoast, for example, Balakot, and on islands, for example, Dholavira.

There is evidence of dry river beds overlapping with the Hakra channel in Pakistan and the seasonal Ghaggar River in India. Many Indus Valley (or Harappan) sites have been discovered along the Ghaggar-Hakra beds. Among them are: Rupar, Rakhigarhi, Sothi, Kalibangan, and Ganwariwala. According to J. G. Shaffer and D. A. Lichtenstein, the Harappan Civilization “is a fusion of the Bagor, Hakra, and Koti Dij traditions or ‘ethnic groups’ in the Ghaggar-Hakra valley on the borders of India and Pakistan”.

According to some archaeologists, more than 500 Harappan sites have been discovered along the dried up river beds of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries, in contrast to only about 100 along the Indus and its tributaries; consequently, in their opinion, the appellation Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilization or Indus-Saraswati civilization is justified. However, these politically inspired arguments are disputed by other archaeologists who state that the Ghaggar-Hakra desert area has been left untouched by settlements and agriculture since the end of the Indus period and hence shows more sites than found in the alluvium of the Indus valley; second, that the number of Harappan sites along the Ghaggar-Hakra river beds have been exaggerated and that the Ghaggar-Hakra, when it existed, was a tributary of the Indus, so the new nomenclature is redundant. “Harappan Civilization” remains the correct one, according to the common archaeological usage of naming a civilization after its first findspot.

>> Cities

By 2600 BCE, the Early Harappan communities had been turned into large urban centres. Such urban centres include Harappa, Ganeriwala, Mohenjo-Daro in modern day Pakistan, and Dholavira, Kalibangan, Rakhigarhi, Rupar, and Lothal in modern day India. In total, more than 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Indus Rivers and their tributaries.

A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization making them the first urban centres in the region. The quality of municipal town planning suggests the knowledge of urban planning and efficient municipal governments which placed a high priority on hygiene, or, alternatively, accessibility to the means of religious ritual.

As seen in Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and the recently partially excavated Rakhigarhi, this urban plan included the world’s first known urban sanitation systems: see hydraulic engineering of the Indus Valley Civilization. Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells. From a room that appears to have been set aside for bathing, waste water was directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes. The house-building in some villages in the region still resembles in some respects the house-building of the Harappans.

The ancient Indus systems of sewerage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the Indus region were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today. The advanced architecture of the Harappans is shown by their impressive dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms, and protective walls. The massive walls of Indus cities most likely protected the Harappans from floods and may have dissuaded military conflicts.

The purpose of the citadel remains debated. In sharp contrast to this civilization’s contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, no large monumental structures were built. There is no conclusive evidence of palaces or temples—or of kings, armies, or priests. Some structures are thought to have been granaries. Found at one city is an enormous well-built bath (the “Great Bath”), which may have been a public bath. Although the citadels were walled, it is far from clear that these structures were defensive. They may have been built to divert flood waters.

Most city dwellers appear to have been traders or artisans, who lived with others pursuing the same occupation in well-defined neighbourhoods. Materials from distant regions were used in the cities for constructing seals, beads and other objects. Among the artifacts discovered were beautiful glazed faïence beads. Steatite seals have images of animals, people (perhaps gods), and other types of inscriptions, including the yet un-deciphered writing system of the Indus Valley Civilization. Some of the seals were used to stamp clay on trade goods and most probably had other uses as well.

Although some houses were larger than others, Indus Civilization cities were remarkable for their apparent, if relative, egalitarianism. All the houses had access to water and drainage facilities. This gives the impression of a society with relatively low wealth concentration, though clear social levelling is seen in personal adornments.

>> Authority and governance

Archaeological records provide no immediate answers for a center of power or for depictions of people in power in Harappan society. But, there are indications of complex decisions being taken and implemented. For instance, the extraordinary uniformity of Harappan artifacts as evident in pottery, seals, weights and bricks. These are the major theories:

> There was a single state, given the similarity in artifacts, the evidence for planned settlements, the standardised ratio of brick size, and the establishment of settlements near sources of raw material.
> There was no single ruler but several: Mohenjo-daro had a separate ruler, Harappa another, and so forth.
> Harappan society had no rulers, and everybody enjoyed equal status.

>> Technology

The people of the Indus Civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass, and time. They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. A comparison of available objects indicates large scale variation across the Indus territories. Their smallest division, which is marked on an ivory scale found in Lothal, was approximately 1.704 mm, the smallest division ever recorded on a scale of the Bronze Age. Harappan engineers followed the decimal division of measurement for all practical purposes, including the measurement of mass as revealed by their hexahedron weights.

These chert weights were in a ratio of 5:2:1 with weights of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 units, with each unit weighing approximately 28 grams, similar to the English Imperial ounce or Greek uncia, and smaller objects were weighed in similar ratios with the units of 0.871. However, as in other cultures, actual weights were not uniform throughout the area. The weights and measures later used in Kautilya’s Arthashastra (4th century BCE) are the same as those used in Lothal.

Harappans evolved some new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead, and tin. The engineering skill of the Harappans was remarkable, especially in building docks.

In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry. Later, in April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e., in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. Eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults were discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Mehrgarh that dates from 7,500–9,000 years ago. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early farming cultures of that region.

A touchstone bearing gold streaks was found in Banawali, which was probably used for testing the purity of gold (such a technique is still used in some parts of India).

>> Arts and crafts

Various sculptures, seals, pottery, gold jewelry, and anatomically detailed figurines in terracotta, bronze, and steatite have been found at excavation sites.

A number of gold, terracotta and stone figurines of girls in dancing poses reveal the presence of some dance form. Also, these terracotta figurines included cows, bears, monkeys, and dogs. The animal depicted on a majority of seals at sites of the mature period has not been clearly identified. Part bull, part zebra, with a majestic horn, it has been a source of speculation. As yet, there is insufficient evidence to substantiate claims that the image had religious or cultic significance, but the prevalence of the image raises the question of whether or not the animals in images of the IVC are religious symbols.

Many crafts “such as shell working, ceramics, and agate and glazed steatite bead making” were used in the making of necklaces, bangles, and other ornaments from all phases of Harappan sites and some of these crafts are still practised in the subcontinent today. Some make-up and toiletry items (a special kind of combs (kakai), the use of collyrium and a special three-in-one toiletry gadget) that were found in Harappan contexts still have similar counterparts in modern India. Terracotta female figurines were found (ca. 2800-2600 BCE) which had red colour applied to the “manga” (line of partition of the hair).

Seals have been found at Mohenjo-Daro depicting a figure standing on its head, and another sitting cross-legged in what some call a yoga-like pose (see image, the so-called Pashupati, below).

This figure, sometimes known as a Pashupati, has been variously identified. Sir John Marshall identified a resemblance to the Hindu god, Shiva. If this can be validated, it would be evidence that some aspects of Hinduism predate the earliest texts, the Veda.

A harp-like instrument depicted on an Indus seal and two shell objects found at Lothal indicate the use of stringed musical instruments. The Harappans also made various toys and games, among them cubical dice (with one to six holes on the faces), which were found in sites like Mohenjo-Daro.

>> Trade and transportation

The Indus civilization’s economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology. The IVC may have been the first civilization to use wheeled transport. These advances may have included bullock carts that are identical to those seen throughout South Asia today, as well as boats. Most of these boats were probably small, flat-bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail, similar to those one can see on the Indus River today; however, there is secondary evidence of sea-going craft. Archaeologists have discovered a massive, dredged canal and what they regard as a docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal in western India (Gujarat state). An extensive canal network, used for irrigation, has however also been discovered by H.-P. Francfort.

During 4300–3200 BCE of the chalcolithic period (copper age), the Indus Valley Civilization area shows ceramic similarities with southern Turkmenistan and northern Iran which suggest considerable mobility and trade. During the Early Harappan period (about 3200–2600 BCE), similarities in pottery, seals, figurines, ornaments, etc. document intensive caravan trade with Central Asia and the Iranian plateau.

Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilization artifacts, the trade networks, economically, integrated a huge area, including portions of Afghanistan, the coastal regions of Persia, northern and western India, and Mesopotamia. Studies of tooth enamel from individuals buried at Harappa suggest that some residents had migrated to the city from beyond the Indus valley. There is some evidence that trade contacts extended to Crete and possibly to Egypt.

There was an extensive maritime trade network operating between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilizations as early as the middle Harappan Phase, with much commerce being handled by “middlemen merchants from Dilmun” (modern Bahrain and Failaka located in the Persian Gulf). Such long-distance sea trade became feasible with the innovative development of plank-built watercraft, equipped with a single central mast supporting a sail of woven rushes or cloth.

Several coastal settlements like Sotkagen-dor (astride Dasht River, north of Jiwani), Sokhta Koh (astride Shadi River, north of Pasni), and Balakot (near Sonmiani) in Pakistan along with Lothal in India testify to their role as Harappan trading outposts. Shallow harbors located at the estuaries of rivers opening into the sea allowed brisk maritime trade with Mesopotamian cities.

>> Subsistence

Some post-1980 studies indicate that food production was largely indigenous to the Indus Valley. It is known that the people of Mehrgarh used domesticated wheats and barley, and the major cultivated cereal crop was naked six-row barley, a crop derived from two-row barley (see Shaffer and Liechtenstein 1995, 1999). Archaeologist Jim G. Shaffer (1999: 245) writes that the Mehrgarh site “demonstrates that food production was an indigenous South Asian phenomenon” and that the data support interpretation of “the prehistoric urbanization and complex social organization in South Asia as based on indigenous, but not isolated, cultural developments”. Others, such as Dorian Fuller, however, indicate that it took some 2000 years before Middle Eastern wheat was acclimatised to South Asian conditions.

>> Collapse

Around 1800 BCE, signs of a gradual decline began to emerge, and by around 1700 BCE, most of the cities were abandoned. In 1953, Sir Mortimer Wheeler proposed that the decline of the Indus Civilization was caused by the invasion of an Indo-European tribe from Central Asia called the “Aryans”. As evidence, he cited a group of 37 skeletons found in various parts of Mohenjo-Daro, and passages in the Vedas referring to battles and forts. However, scholars soon started to reject Wheeler’s theory, since the skeletons belonged to a period after the city’s abandonment and none were found near the citadel. Subsequent examinations of the skeletons by Kenneth Kennedy in 1994 showed that the marks on the skulls were caused by erosion, and not violent aggression. Today, many scholars believe that the collapse of the Indus Civilization was caused by drought and a decline in trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. It has also been suggested that immigration by new peoples, deforestation, floods, or changes in the course of the river may have contributed to the collapse of the IVC.

Previously, it was also believed that the decline of the Harappan civilization led to an interruption of urban life in the Indian subcontinent. However, the Indus Valley Civilization did not disappear suddenly, and many elements of the Indus Civilization can be found in later cultures. David Gordon White cites three other mainstream scholars who “have emphatically demonstrated” that Vedic religion is partially derived from the Indus Valley Civilizations.

Current archaeological data suggest that material culture classified as Late Harappan may have persisted until at least c. 1000–900 BCE and was partially contemporaneous with the Painted Grey Ware culture. Harvard archaeologist Richard Meadow points to the late Harappan settlement of Pirak, which thrived continuously from 1800 BCE to the time of the invasion of Alexander the Great in 325 BCE.

Recent archaeological excavations indicate that the decline of Harappa drove people eastward. After 1900 BCE, the number of sites in India increased from 218 to 853. Excavations in the Gangetic plain show that urban settlement began around 1200 BCE, only a few centuries after the decline of Harappa and much earlier than previously expected. Archaeologists have emphasized that, just as in most areas of the world, there was a continuous series of cultural developments. These link “the so-called two major phases of urbanization in South Asia”.

A possible natural reason for the IVC’s decline is connected with climate change that is also signalled for the neighbouring areas of the Middle East: The Indus valley climate grew significantly cooler and drier from about 1800 BCE, linked to a general weakening of the monsoon at that time. Alternatively, a crucial factor may have been the disappearance of substantial portions of the Ghaggar Hakra river system. A tectonic event may have diverted the system’s sources toward the Ganges Plain, though there is complete uncertainty about the date of this event, as most settlements inside Ghaggar-Hakra river beds have not yet been dated. The actual reason for decline might be any combination of these factors. A 2004 paper indicated that the isotopes of sediments carried by the Ghaggar-Hakra system over the last 20 thousand years do not come from the glaciated Higher Himalaya but have a Sub-Himalayan source. They speculated that the river system was rain-fed instead and thus contradicted the idea of a Harappan-time mighty “Sarasvati” river. Recent geological research by a group led by Peter Clift investigated how the courses of rivers have changed in this region since 8000 years ago, to test whether climate or river reorganizations are responsible for the decline of the Harappan. Using U-Pb dating of zircon sand grains they found that sediments typical of the Beas, Sutlej and Yamuna rivers (Himalayan tributaries of the Indus) are actually present in former Ghaggar-Hakra channels. However, sediment contributions from these glacial-fed rivers stopped at least by 10,000 years ago, well before the development of the Indus civilization.

A research team led by the geologist Liviu Giosan of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution also concluded that climate change in form of the easterward migration of the monsoons led to the decline of the IVC. The team’s findings were published in PNAS in May 2012. According to their theory, the slow eastward migration of the monsoons across Asia initially allowed the civilization to develop. The monsoon-supported farming led to large agricultural surpluses, which in turn supported the development of cities. The IVC residents did not develop irrigation capabilities, relying mainly on the seasonal monsoons. As the monsoons kept shifting eastward, the water supply for the agricultural activities dried up. The residents then migrated towards the Ganges basin in the east, where they established smaller villages and isolated farms. The small surplus produced in these small communities did not allow development of trade, and the cities died out.

>> Legacy

In the aftermath of the Indus Civilization’s collapse, regional cultures emerged, to varying degrees showing the influence of the Indus Civilization. In the formerly great city of Harappa, burials have been found that correspond to a regional culture called the Cemetery H culture. At the same time, the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture expanded from Rajasthan into the Gangetic Plain. The Cemetery H culture has the earliest evidence for cremation; a practice dominant in Hinduism today.